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Zero to One - PETER THIEL | Animated Book Summary

从零到一: 创业公司笔记,或如何创建未来彼得·提尔 著 (布雷克·马斯特斯 整理)
Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future by Peter Thiel with Blake Masters
This book shows us how one builds companies that create something new.
It came about when Peter Thiel was teaching a course in Stanford in 2012.
他的一个学生 布雷克·马斯特斯 记了笔记 之后这些笔记被整理出版
One of his students, Blake Masters, took notes and these were then adapted into this book.
Copying something is easier than creating something new.
在已有的事物中加入更多想法 让我们从1到N
Adding more of the same takes us from 1 to n.
但是创造一件新事物时 我们是从0到1
But by creating something new, we go from 0 to 1.
This 0 to 1 vertical progress is difficult to predict
as it involves someone doing something never done before.
提尔称这种形式的发展为 科技
Thiel identifies this form of progress as technology,
而对应的横向发展 即让一些事物工作起来 然后复制它们
whereas the horizontal progress of taking something that works, copying it
并且让它们普遍适用于各处 则仅仅是全球化而已
and making it work everywhere is simply globalization.
Brand new technology often comes from small groups of people in start-ups.
Bureaucracy in large companies makes developing new technology slow and difficult.
The lessons learned for entrepreneurs from the dot-com bubble in the late 1990s and subsequent crash
包括 企业要逐步增长 要保持灵活和精益
include making incremental advances, staying flexible and lean,
improve on the competition
and focus on your product rather than sales.
然而 提尔对此提出的反对的观点看起来更为正确一些
However, Thiel argues opposing principles are more likely to be correct
比如敢于冒险 糟糕的计划总比没有计划好
such as risking boldness, having a bad plan is better than no plan,
competitive markets reduce profits
还有 销售和产品一样重要
and sales are as important as the product.
他认为你不一定要逆着大众潮流 但是一定要自己思考
He says you should not necessarily oppose the crowd, but think for yourself.
在完美的市场竞争之下 供求平衡
In perfect competition where supply meets demand from the consumer,
no business would make an economic profit in the long term
as if there was profit to be made,
新的公司就会进入市场 增加供应 从而降低价格
new companies would enter the market, increase supply and drive prices down.
This can happen because no company has any market power to implement barriers to entry.
The opposite situation is a monopoly,
垄断企业可以自己设定价格 从而得到更大的利润
where the monopoly can set its own prices and make more profit.
谷歌就是一个从零到一的商业范例 并且现在成为了垄断企业
Google is an example of a business that went from 0 to 1 and is now a monopoly,
at least in search with 68% of the market.
Without having to worry about competition,
公司就可以有更多的精力关心员工 产品
a company can think about other things such as caring for its workers and products,
研究 长远的未来和对世界的影响
research, its long term future and its impact on the world.
有时 竞争和对手是无法避免的
Sometimes competition and rivals are inevitable
假如你无法战胜你的对手 那么你最好和他们合并
and if you can’t beat your rival, you may do better to merge with them.
这就是当年 提尔的贝宝公司和伊隆·马斯克的X.com公司以平分股权的方式合并时 提尔的做法
That’s what Thiel did when his company PayPal joined Elon Musk’s in a 50-50 split.
This allowed them to survive the dot-com bust
and build a successful company.
Successful technology businesses often lose money initially
但是随着时间的推移 一些有价值的东西会被建立起来
but over time something valuable is built.
提尔解释说 一个企业现在的价值
Thiel explains that the current value of a business
is the total amount of money it will make in the future,
hence the seemingly astronomical valuations of some tech start-ups.
So what is an example of a characteristic of a monopoly?
Creating something that is at least ten times better than the closest alternative
will provide a monopolistic advantage.
Jeff Bezos took this literally with his company, Amazon,
by offering ten times the number of books than any other book store.
When trying to build a monopoly with a start-up,
you should always start with a very small market
而你的目标就是 在这个市场中占有大份额 从而占据主导地位
as the aim is to dominate a large share of the market.
贝宝公司是通过把最初的服务对象锁定在几千个易贝的”有力卖家”身上 来实现这个目标的
PayPal achieved this by initially targeting serving a few thousand eBay “PowerSellers”.
You can then scale up.
Amazon did this by only selling books when they started
之后扩展到类似的市场 例如CD和游戏 来实现市场扩张
and then later expanding into similar markets such as CDs and games.
每一个让人们熟知的理念 都曾经不为人知
Every well-known idea was once not known.
曾经 它们都是秘密
It was at one point, a secret.
因此 一个有价值但是还没有被建立的公司也可以被称为秘密
A valuable company that has not been built yet is also therefore a secret.
And if there are many secrets left in the world
then there may be many successful companies that haven’t been built yet.
很多人不相信世界上还有很多 或者还有哪怕一个 秘密
Many people don’t believe there are many, or any secrets left in the world.
Most of this planet’s land mass has been “discovered”
and many people believe that if there was something secret to be found,
那么也只会由那些更聪明 更有创造力的人去发现
someone cleverer or more creative would have found it already.
所以 他们甚至不试图去看一看
As a result, they don’t even bother trying to look.
相信秘密的存在 会让你成就一些困难的 并且很多人认为根本不可能实现的事情
Believing in secrets allows you to achieve something hard that many people would believe is impossible.
There are many more secrets left to find,
but only by people who constantly look for them.
Diseases are still to be cured,
speed of travel can be increased
在商业上 创业公司还能利用多余的 被人忽视的空间去成长
and in business, start-ups can use spare capacity that is ignored.
Airbnb and Uber are recent examples of this,
将供与求联系起来 找到隐藏在那些一目了然的事物背后的秘密
connecting suppliers to demand and finding the secret hidden in plain sight.
那么 一个公司在成立之初应该怎样做 才能保证不会输在起跑线上?
So what should a company get right at the beginning to ensure it’s not flawed from the start?
The most crucial decision is picking the right co-founder,
although making sure everyone in the company gets along is essential too.
Founders should know each other well prior to starting the company,
否则 就会像和第一次见面的人结婚-
otherwise it’s like marrying the first person you meet –
也许行得通 但是可能性很小
it may work, but it’s unlikely.
作为规定 公司里的每个人都应该全职工作
As a rule, everyone should work full time in the company
除了少量的例外 比如会计
with the odd exception such as an accountant.
另外 应该避免远程工作
Also working remotely should be avoided.
这些会把每个人凝聚在一起 并且对公司事务达到共识 防止人心不齐
This keeps everyone together and on the same page, preventing misalignment.
提尔发现 在创业阶段 CEO拿的薪水越少
Thiel has spotted that the less a CEO is paid,
the better the company does when it’s a start-up.
越低的薪水 越能激励大家把注意力放在建设公司的总体价值上面
The lower pay will incentivise the focus of building up the value of the company in total.
The low pay also sets a standard for other employees,
这样 大家更有可能效仿CEO对公司的尽心尽力
where the CEO’s obvious commitment to the company is more likely to be emulated.
根据提尔所说 对于销售 也就是一切和卖出产品相关的事物
The importance of distribution, i.e. everything to do with selling a product
is underestimated according to Thiel.
Customers will not just appear because you’ve built something.
Selling it is something you need to do too.
广告是有用的 所以非常重要
Advertising works and therefore matters.
我们可能拒绝一些很明显的推销手段 然后觉得广告对我们一点作用都没有
We may resist obvious sales pitches and believe advertising doesn’t work on us.
但是 这只是盲目的自信
But that is false confidence.
广告可以将模糊的印象不易察觉地植入我们心中 而这种印象是可以推动今后的销售的
Advertising can embed subtle impressions on our mind that can drive sales later.
Bad salesman we react negatively to.
但是对于销售专家 我们可能根本意识不到他们的存在 因为他们将工作融入到了生活中
Sales experts we may not even know because their work is hidden in plain sight.
当他们悄悄地工作时 才能更好的达到销售的目的
When hidden, sales work best.
甚至 连他们的工作头衔都会隐藏住真正的工作内容
Even job titles hide what people do.
People who sell advertising are Account executives.
People who sell customers are Business developers.
People who sell companies are Investment bankers
People who sell themselves are Politicians.
人们会低估销售的重要性 主要是由于这份工作的隐蔽性
The main reason people underestimate the importance of sales is because it is hidden.
最终 每个企业都必须试图回答七个问题
Ultimately every business must try to answer seven questions.
Peter Thiel’s seven questions are:
1.工程 – 你能否创造出突破性的技术而不是慢慢改进?
1. Engineering – can you create breakthrough technology instead of incremental improvements?
2. 时机 – 现在是你这个企业开始的正确时机吗?
2. Timing – is now the right time to start your particular business?
3. 垄断 – 你是否从占据一个小市场的大份额开始?
3. Monopoly – are you starting with a big share of a small market?
4. 人员 – 你是否拥有一个好的团队?
4. People – do you have the right team?
5. 销售 – 你是否有办法销售产品而不仅仅是创造产品?
5. Distribution – do you have a way to not just create but deliver your product?
6. 持久性 – 你是否可以在今后的10到20年内都维护好你的市场地位?
6. Durability – will your market position be defensible ten or twenty years into the future?
7. 秘密 – 你是否已经抓住了那个不为人知的独一无二的机会?
7. Secret – have you identified a unique opportunity that others don’t see?
如果你不能好好地回答以上所有问题 那么你的企业可能会失败
Without a good answer to all of them, the business may fail.
如果你能回答其中的5-6个问题 你可能会成功
It may succeed with five or six answers,
但是能正确地回答所有的7个问题 就必然将你引向成功
but correctly answering all seven will lead to success.