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地球上的零重力体验 – 译学馆
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地球上的零重力体验

Zero-G Experiments on Earth: The Bremen Drop Tower

如果你想要在零重力的环境中做一个科学实验 你有几种选择
If you want to test a scientific experiment in zero-g, you’ve got a few options.
你可以把它送入国际太空站
You could send it to the International Space Station,
但是 那太昂贵 并且 说实话 这不太可能实现
but thats expensive, and, let’s be honest, it’s unlikely to happen
除非你在航天局里有一些朋友
unless you’ve got a few friends at a space agency.
你也可以把它装在一个小卫星里 然后发射它
You could package it up into a small Cubesat and launch it,
但是这仍然有些昂贵
but that’s still pretty expensive.
你还可以在零重力的飞行中带上它
You could take it along on a zero-g flight,
并且把你自己捆在一架加速朝地面飞行的飞机里
and strap yourself into a plane that’s accelerating towards the ground
通过合适的速度来制造失重
at just the right speed to cause weightlessness.
但即使这样做仍然有许多麻烦事 并且成本高 还要消耗很多燃料
But that’s still a lot of hassle, and a lot of expense, and a lot of fuel burned.
但是幸运的是 还有其他的选择
But fortunately, there is another option.
这是位于德国不来梅大学的降落塔
This is the Drop Tower at the University of Bremen in Germany.
里面有一间巨大的真空室 并且在过去的90分钟里
Inside is an enormous vacuum chamber: and for the last 90 minutes,
功能强大的泵已经抽走了里面所有的空气
powerful pumps have been have been removing all the air from inside,
把它变成一个接近真空的环境 这对进行自由落体实验而言是完美的条件
turning it into a near-vacuum that’s perfect for freefall experiments.
并且一个落体舱已经准备好即将出发
And there’s a drop capsule about ready to go.
在这个实验中 我尝试研究摩擦充电中的电荷分离过程
In this experiment, I try to study the charge separation process through tribocharging,
造成静电的因素
the effect that causes static electricity.
在微重力过程中 玻璃珠被释放到一个电容器中
During the microgravity, glass beads are released into a capacitor.
在微重力环境中 你拥有充足的时间去追踪你的粒子
In microgravity, you have enough time to trace your particles,
同时你还能发现其他有趣的反应
and you can observe other interesting effects
那些反应是在正常重力环境下无法被发现的
that aren’t observable in normal gravity.
地球上的重力加速度大约是10米每秒
Acceleration due to gravity on Earth is roughly 10 metres per second,
并且是在没有空气阻力减缓物体降落速度的情况下
and without air resistance to slow things down,
降落舱的确将以相当快的速度开始移动
that drop capsule is going to start moving very quickly indeed.
在释放后的第一秒 降落舱降落了10米
In the first second after release, the drop capsule goes 10 metres.
下一秒 20米
Next second, 20.
下一秒 30米
Next second, 30.
下一秒 40米
Next second, 40,
然后小球几乎已经达到这里的高度限度
and then we’ve used up pretty much all the height there is.
为了得到多一秒的自由落体的数据 你不得不建造比这个塔高出一半的塔
To get just one more second’s worth of freefall, you’d have to build this tower half as high
再来一次
again.
除非你做件非常聪明的事——通过上升来进行
Unless you do something really clever, and start by going up.
这个实验将在降落舱中进行
The experiments are installed into a drop vehicle.
这就是那个实验本身
That’s the experiment itself,
这是实验所需的所有测量和诊断工具
it’s all the measurement and diagnostic tools,
这是由电脑来控制的
it’s the computer controlling it.
我们把它用30倍重力加速度往上抛大约200毫秒
We throw it upwards with up to almost 30g for 200ms,
然后进入零重力的环境大约10秒钟
and then into zero-g for almost ten seconds, then.
然后减速 最后 在实验的最后
And the deceleration, finally, by the end of the experiment
加速度值为35至50倍重力加速度
has a value of about 35 to maximum 50g.
这必须非常精确 因为你可以想象
It should be very accurate, because you can imagine,
如果能量太大 我们会撞击天花板
if the energy is too large, we would hit the ceiling,
我们将会破坏我们的真空容器
we would destroy our vacuum containment,
这个真空容器是我们这个房间里最易损坏的部分
which is the most delicate element we have in our house.
我们通过调整一些降落舱合适位置的平衡物
We almost perfectly balance the centre of gravity to the vertical axis of the capsule
几乎完美地平衡了重心垂直于降落舱的轴
by adjusting some counterweights at appropriate locations in the capsule.
这些实验涉及流体力学 燃烧学
The experiments are in fluid mechanics, it’s in combustion,
流体运送 生物技术
it’s in fluid handling, it’s in biotechnology,
物理学和天体物理学 还有基础物理学
it’s in physics and astrophysics, it’s in fundamental physics.
几乎所有的学科
So almost any disciplines.
虽然有些违反直觉 但是降落舱真的是失重的
It’s a little counterintuitive, but the capsule really is weightless:
在上升和下降的时候都是
all the way up and all the way down.
甚至当它相对我们的方向变了
The forces acting on it remain the same,
它所受的力还是不变的
even as it changes direction relative to us.
那我们现在开始吧
So here we go.
到发射的时间了
Launch time.
弹射器会点火 并且在降落舱自由落体的9秒内
The slingshot will fire, and in the nine seconds that the capsule’s in freefall,
一个8米深的聚苯乙烯丸坑
an eight-metre-deep pit filled with polystyrene pellets
将滑入弹射器去抓住降落舱
will slide in over the catapult to catch the capsule.
希望如此
Hopefully!
感谢不来梅大学的所有人 降落塔的所有人
Thanks to everyone at the University of Bremen, at the Drop Tower,
和今天参与实验的研究者
and to the researchers who were testing here today!
屏幕下方是关于他们和有关他们工作的链接
Pull down the description for links about them and about their work.

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视频概述

地球上也能有零重力的体验吗?看看这个实验吧!

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收集自网络

翻译译者

紫叶醡浆草

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Ah~Qiu

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4aCMDQsx740

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