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我们为何选择性地驯化动物? – 译学馆
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我们为何选择性地驯化动物?

Zebra vs Horses: Animal Domestication

绵羊 曾经可不都这么毛茸茸
Sheep… weren’t always this fluffy.
我们通过多代繁殖毛最多的羊 使绵羊多毛化
We fluffy-fied them by breeding the fluffiest in each generation.
这就是驯化 为了更好地满足人类需求改造野生动物
This is domestication: sculpting wild animals for better human use.
正如我们在第一部分所看到
As we saw in Part 1,
对于原始人 动物是强大的工具 食物
for early man, animals were powerful tools …food,
服饰 交通工具 拖拉机
clothing, transportation, tractors.
虽然那时到处有动物
Yet though there were animals everywhere,
但在前现代时期只有少数动物被驯化
only a handful were domesticated in the pre-modern world.
什么决定动物能否被驯化呢
What made these different?
我们做个驯化条件清单 好吗
Let’s make a domestication checklist, shall we?
首先 可以喂养
First up: Feedable
牛是能将草转化成牛排的机器
A cow is a machine that turns grass into steaks
老虎是能将牛排转化成……老虎的机器
And a tiger a machine that turns steaks into… tiger.
十磅草可转化为一磅牛肉
Ten pounds of grass make a pound of steak.
十磅牛肉可转化为一磅老虎肉
And ten pounds of steak make a pound of tiger.
但这些的卡路里含量是一样的
but these have the same number of calories
所以你也许只要吃头牛
— so you might as well just eat the cow
就能非常省事
and save yourself a lot of work.
所以热力学的原理 使得你不会去驯化食肉动物
So pure carnivores: you’re not going to domesticate, just because of thermodynamics.
你要找的是不挑剔的食草动物
You’re looking for herbivores that aren’t picky.
它们能吃遍地都有但你不吃的食物
They should eat something that’s everywhere that you can’t eat.
什么都爱吃的杂食动物更好 更加值得驯化
Any omnivores better be happy eating whatever and better be super worth it.
然而这样说就是本末倒置了
We are, however, putting the pig before the pen here
因为首先我们需要捕捉友善的动物
because first we need to catch something that’s friendly.
很显然捕捉食肉动物是个坏主意
OK, obviously catching a carnivore is a bad idea anyway
因为它们的日常工作就是谋杀
because their day job is murder.
但是像灰熊这类杂食动物也是月夜杀手
But plenty of omnivores like grizzleys moonlight in murder.
也因为这样 素食动物也并不安全 水牛也是可怕的大家伙
No safety in vegetarians either: buffalo are terrifying tanks for all the reasons mentioned before…
河马在非洲也是高分杀手
…hippos hold the murder high-score in Africa, …
长颈鹿看似笨拙 是因为你不了解它们的攻击范围
giraffes look real dorky until you consider their striking range —
狮子通常不碰它们
lions mostly leave them alone.
非常适合驯化的动物 很碰巧都不是特别危险的
Animals it would be awesome to domesticate are not, coincidentally, super dangerous.
战熊对于你的部落来说是巨大优势
War bears would be a hell of an advantage for your tribe,
但这不可能发生
but it’s not going to happen.
如果它很大又不危险 那它就是神经质
And if it’s big and not dangerous, it’s a nervous wreck.
试着偷偷接近瞪羚?呵呵哒
Try sneaking up on a gazelle? Rhymes with”LOL”.
当然你和你的伙伴们
Sure, you and a team of buddies
可以用一整天的马拉松式追赶使它力竭
could spend the whole day marathon jogging it down to exhaustion… …
但如果它在被你拖回家时脖子没断
but if it doesn’t break it’s own neck as you try to drag it back home,
那它可以轻易跃出你建的任何围栏
then it’s going to casually leap out of whatever pen you built for it.
好 第二点 有些动物有生育偏好
OK, next up: some animals have reproductive -ah- preferences
使它们无法被圈养
that make them incompatible with captivity.
说你呢 熊猫
Looking at you, Pandas.
要让熊猫生育 人们得花费不可理喻的时间和精力
The time and energy humans have spent to get pandas to get on with it is comical.
采集狩猎人需要非常积极繁殖的动物 有时也会出错
Hunter-Gatherers need an animal so eager to breed, it gets it wrong sometimes,
他们需要详细了解各种动物在交配季的情况
not an animal whose mating seasons they have to keep careful track of.
所以 友善 可喂养 繁殖快
So Friendly, Feedable and — Fecund.
它还需要长得快
It also needs to grow up fast.
这让我们能对比驯化和驯服的核心区别
This gets us to the heart of domestication versus taming.
重复一遍 驯化物种是为了让它更好地服务于人类
Again, to domesticate a species is to change it to make it better for us.
加个边注 我们也驯化植物
And side note here: we domesticate plants as well.
我们已经培育出与它们野生品种差别巨大的版本
We’ve bred them to be monstrous versions of their wild selves.
所以当嬉皮士们说到重返自然
So when hippies talk about going back to nature,
他们忘了这些植物就和这些果酱小饼一样是人造的
they forget that these plants are just as man made as this pop-tart.
好吧 聊回到动物
Anyway, back to the animals.
生产猪肉项目能成功 是因为猪的生殖周期比人的短
The pig porkification project succeeded because pig generations are shorter than human generations.
单个聪明的人就能在一生中不断生产猪肉
A single, clever human can make porky progress in their lifetime.
大象就不同了
Compare and contrast: Elephants.
怀孕两年生一只小象
Two years to make a calf,
间隔五年再生小象
five years in between calves,
母象九岁成年 公象十五岁成年
nine years until female maturity, fifteen years for males.
你别逗了 大象 没时间等你繁殖
You’ve got to be kidding, Elephants. There’s no time for this.
但是人类依旧能驯服大象
But humans can still tame elephants.
你可以捕捉一头象
You can catch an elephant,
训练他和人类和谐共处
and train it not to freak out around humans,
然后让它工作
then put it to work.
但是驯化大象需要几代人的精确记录
But elephant domestication would require accurate records over several human lives,
更别提养一两只驯服的大象有多费钱了
never mind that keeping one or two tamed elephants around is incredibly costly,
所以战象仅在复杂的社会中偶尔出现过
which is why war elephants only happened on occasion in already complex societies.
温驯的大象是奢侈品 所以才有这个简单法则
Tame elephants are a luxury, hence this rule of thumb:
农场的象是驯化的 马戏团的象是驯服的
if it’s on farm, it’s domesticated, if it’s in a circus, it’s tame.
最后 家庭
Finally, families.
好 来对比斑马和马
OK, zebra vs horses.
马是改变人类文明的重要一员
Horses are civilization game-changers,
值得注意的是 从公元前几千年到电报时代
it’s remarkable to think that from thousands BC until the telegraph
一个骑着马的人就是当时最好的网络
a dude on a horse was the best internet available.
马是在亚欧大陆被驯化的
Horses were domesticated in Eurasia,
但是人类起源于有斑马的非洲
but humans started in Africa which has zebra,
为何人类没有骑着斑马行走非洲并且征服世界呢
why didn’t the first humans ride out of Africa on the backs of zebra to conquer the world?
因为斑马很混蛋
Because zebra are bastards.
它们天性就爱踢和咬 在无青霉素的年代很危险
They live to kick and bite: dangerous in a pre-penicillin world.
而且斑马有回避反射 使之很难被套索
and zebra also have a ducking reflex making them very frustrating to lasso.
除了是很难搞定的动物
In addition to being a real pain in the ass animal,
斑马还缺乏家族结构
Zebra lack a family structure.
马群是有等级制度的
Horse herds hierarchy,
它们排成一列前行时 你能依次看到
you can see it when they travel in a line:
公马 头号母马 她的小马 二号母马 她的小马 等等
the male, top female, her foals, second female, her foals, and so on.
只要捕捉并驯服头号公马 人类就成了领头马
Humans, by capturing and taming the lead male, become head horse.
很多农场动物之所以是农场动物
Lots of barnyard animals are barnyard animals
是因为它们的家族观念会被人类利用
because they have family values humans exploit.
它们从小就认为人类是一种怪怪的领头牛
They just grow up with the idea that this human is a funny sort of take-charge cow or whatever.
无所谓
No big deal.
鸡会一直啄斗直到选出最厉害的鸡
Chickens will peck, peck, peck until they’ve worked out who’s top chicken.
但你知道谁是最厉害的鸡吗 我们才是
But you know who’s really top chicken? We’re top chicken.
狗和猫不同的原因在此
Dogs and cats: this is what makes them different.
狗会爱你 保护你 与你打猎
Dogs will love you and defend you and hunt with you
因为你是它们群体的一员
because you’re part of the pack.
狗生来就对我们有用
Dogs live to be useful to us
在现代社会表现为倒下装死
which in the modern world means falling over to play dead,
但它们很乐意
but they love it.
砰 好姑娘 好姑娘 [笑声]
“Bang! Good girl! Good girl!” [laughing]
而猫则是住在你家的小老虎
Whereas a cat is a tiny tiger that lives in your house.
好吧 再说它们
OK, back to these guys.
对于斑马而言 完全不存在社会
For zebra, there’s no such thing as society.
它们成群结队
They hang out in groups
因为这是好的生存策略 但它们不在乎
because it’s a good survival strategy but they don’t really care.
抓一头斑马 它的家族不会跟随
Catch a zebra and his family won’t follow,
尝试骑斑马 能保住你手指就是万幸了
try to ride him and you’ll be lucky to keep your fingers.
斑马外表看起来像马 内在却截然不同
Zebra look like horses on the outside, but not on the inside.
所以清单如下
So that’s the checklist:
友善 可喂养 繁殖快 重视家族
Friendly – Feedable – Fecund – Family Friendly
这个清单不长 但对于采集狩猎人来说
It’s not a long checklist, but for Hunter-Gatherers,
他们想驯化的任何动物都要满足所有条件
any animal they wanted to domesticate needed everything,
所以在早期人类历史中
which is why in early human history
全世界只有十三种大型动物被驯化
only a baker’s dozen of big animals were domesticated the world over.
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视频概述

人类驯化动物的必备条件清单

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翻译译者

香芋

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审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOmjnioNulo

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