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乌鸦的葬礼

You've Heard of a Murder of Crows. How About a Crow Funeral? | Deep Look

特大消息!
Big news!
现在你们可以在Patreon上支持《微观深望》了
You can now support Deep Look on Patreon.
详情请见节目结尾
More after the show.
(美国)公共广播公司 数字工作室
旧金山公共广播电台
《微观深望》
公园绿意盎然 又是恬静宜人的一天
A verdant park, an idyllic day.
但这里发生了件极为可怕的事
But something has gone terribly wrong.
一只路过的乌鸦最早发现尸体
A passerby discovers it first
并发出了刺耳的叫声
— and lets out a piercing call.
所有听见叫声的乌鸦都在几秒内赶到现场
Within seconds, everyone in earshot rushesto the scene.
这是一桩谋杀案……或看上去是如此
It’s mayhem… or so it seems.
乌鸦充满灵性 也相当健谈
Crows are intelligent, and super chatty
在组织严密的团体中 它们互相照看彼此
They watch out for one another within tight-knitgroups.
对于成年乌鸦来说 他杀相当罕见
As adults it’s pretty rare for crows tobe killed.
那么当其他乌鸦发现某只乌鸦死亡时
So when one dies the others notice.
它们就只是害怕吗?
Are they just scared?
还是说有着更深层次的事物悄然发生呢?
Or is something deeper going on.
凯利·斯威夫特 华盛顿大学的博士研究生
Kaeli Swift, a Ph. D. candidate
做了一个实验
at the Universityof Washington, set up
来探索这点
an experiment to find out.
接下来的几天里 她来到一个坐落于
She visits a park in Seattle for a few days,
西雅图的公园 给乌鸦留下成堆的花生
leaving piles of peanuts for the crows.
有一天
Then one day…
斯威夫特以一种迥然不同的面目出现
Swift shows up looking very different.
戴着面具 假发
Wearing a mask and a wig,
手中托着一只乌鸦标本
she carries a dead taxidermied crow
第一个看到她的乌鸦发出警告
The first one that sees her sounds the alarm.
成群的乌鸦立刻像炸了锅一样抗议起来
The flock erupts in protest.
似乎在哀号谴责她以及那只死去的鸟
The crows seem to wail and scold her and the dead bird.
斯威夫特把这种现象称作乌鸦的葬礼
Swift calls these crow funerals, though
尽管它不像我们为死者举办的葬礼一样庄严肃穆
they’re not the solemn memorials we put on for our dead.
她认为这种吵闹的集会正是
She thinks these noisy gatherings are opportunities
给乌鸦在这样安全的集体中
for crows to learn about the dangers
提供认识周围危险的机会
that surround them, within the safety of the group.
第二周取下面具的斯威夫特又回到了公园
When an unmasked Swift returns to the park the next week
带着更多美味的花生
with more tasty peanuts, the
乌鸦却很是安静机警
crows are quiet and wary.
它们似乎已经意识到这里有危险
They seem to have learned there’s somethinghazardous about this place. Still,
但它们还是吃了花生
they eat the peanuts.
尽管接近花生的时间更久 看上去也更多疑
But they take longer to approach and seem to be much more suspicious.
那么斯威夫特再次带着面具而来呢
And when Swift returns wearing the mask?
它们立刻离开了
They lose it.
即使没有死乌鸦 它们仍视她为威胁
Even without the dead crow, they still see her as a threat.
在这点上 鸽子与之相比
Compare that to these pigeons.
鸽子对于她托着死去的同伴几乎毫无反应
They barely seem to register her holding theirdeceased comrade.
这也是大多数动物的反应
That’s how most creatures react.
仅少数几种动物不一样 如海豚
Just a few, like dolphins,
大象和乌鸦 它们对目睹同类死亡
elephants and crows react strongly to seeing one of their own
反应激烈
who’s died.
甚至几周后 乌鸦们一看到面具
Even weeks later the crows cause a ruckus
仍会发生骚动
when they see the mask.
有些乌鸦甚至没见过她拿着
Some never even saw her
死乌鸦的样子 它们仍会把她和危险
with the dead crow but they still learned to associate her
联系起来
with danger.
这就叫社会学习
It ’ s called social learning —
通过观察模仿他人 获取新信息
gaining new information by observing and imitating others.
我们人类也常通过观察
We ’ re always looking to learn
来互相学习 来避免犯下使他人过早地
from one another too… to avoid the mistakes that lead others
走向生命终点的错误
to meet their untimely end.
嘿!看这里
Hey there.
我们超爱制作《微观深望》这个节目
We love making Deep Look,
如果你也喜欢的话
and if you love it too,
你猜如何 《微观深望》上传在Patreon上了
guess what – Deep Look is on Patreon!
每个月你都能在Patreon上支持我们
Patreon lets you support us each month,
这样我们也能为你呈上更多更优秀的作品
so we can do more and better stuff for you.
例如对话制片人 科学家
Like chats with producers and scientists,
以及涉及更广领域的其他期节目
and extra episodes in faraway lands.
你也将被邀请进入我们的会员社区
You’ll be invited to our members-only community,
在这你可以说出你的点子
where you can give us your story ideas and
帮助推广《微观深望》
get Deep Look schwag.
那么请点击这里或说明中
So click on the Patreon link
Patreon的链接来报名注册吧
here or in the description to sign up.
那么Patreon上见!
See you there!

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视频概述

藏在乌鸦的葬礼背后的,仅仅是对同类离开的悲伤吗?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

一线通途

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixYVFZnNl6s

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