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如何避免掉入YouTube算法的“兔子洞”

YouTube Algorithms: How To Avoid the Rabbit Hole

(upbeat music)
(欢快的音乐)
– Look, libraries are awesome.
听我说 图书馆棒极了
I mean look at that. Wow.
你看 多漂亮啊
But let’s be real.
但我们要面对现实
For everyday research, you’ll probably just go to YouTube
对于日常调研 你可能会去YouTube
for a quick tutorial or explainer video.
查询一个简短教程或是讲解视频
Hey, you could even use YouTube in a library.
嘿 你甚至可以在图书馆用YouTube
[explosion sound]
[爆炸声]
And there are plenty of beard grooming tutorials
YouTube上有很多打理胡子的教程
enough to keep me busy for hours and hours,
足以让我沉浸数小时
and hours, and hours.
挥霍大把的时间
Wait. How did I end up here?
等等 我怎么看到这儿的?
(squeaking) (upbeat music)
(吱吱声) (轻快的音乐)
We’ve all been there.
我们都曾经历过这种事
You see, the good and the bad of YouTube
YouTube的优点和缺点都在于
is that it serves up videos you probably wanna watch.
它能提供你可能想看的视频
That’s not magic, it’s because of algorithms.
那并非魔术 而是因为算法
Algorithms are the set of instructions
算法是一组指令
that decide what contents you see,
它能决定你在线搜索时看到的内容
and what order it’s listed when you search online.
以及它们排列的顺序
And these algorithms are not unbiased codes
这些算法不是单纯提供
just handing out useful and factual information.
有用的真实信息的公正代码
They are designed by people
它们是由人设计的
and they are made to suck you down a rabbit hole,
用来把你吸引进一个“兔子洞”
suggesting more and more that will just keep you watching.
给你提供越来越多的视频 好让你不停地看下去
Why?
为什么呢?
They’re not smiling evilly twirling their mustaches
他们并没有在你拖延家庭作业的时候
as you procrastinate on your homework.
拧着自己的胡须邪恶地笑
It’s because YouTube’s business model
这是因为YouTube的商业模式
depends on your eyes staying on their videos,
依赖于你尽可能长时间地
and the ads they sold, for as long as possible.
看他们的视频和售卖的广告
And YouTube’s business model is slaying.
YouTube的商业模式正影响着人们
In the US, almost 75% of adults use it,
在美国 约有75%的成年人使用YouTube
and if you’re under 25 you’re probably on it every single day.
如果你未满25岁 你可能每天都会用它
Too bad that business model isn’t worried about
可惜这种商业模式并不关心
whether or not you see the most accurate information.
你是否看到了最准确的信息
In fact, YouTube’s algorithms tend to recommend you stuff
事实上 YouTube的算法倾向于推荐
that just reinforces what you already like or believe.
强化你喜欢的或相信的东西
Facts are not their biggest priority.
事实不是最重要的
It’s you staying and watching.
最重要的是你留下来观看
So, YouTube’s CEO can call it an online library.
因此 YouTube的总裁可以称它是在线图书馆
Free speech!
言论自由!
But it really isn’t.
但事实并非如此
It’s a social media and video sharing platform
它是一个靠广告而生的
that lives off of advertising.
社交媒体和视频分享平台
So, how can you avoid buying into
那么如何在YouTube避免
false information on YouTube?
沉迷于虚假信息
Like it or not, more and more people
不论你喜欢与否 越来越多的人
are going to social media for news,
会通过社交媒体看新闻
and to Google and YouTube for research.
也会借助Google或YouTube来做研究
So, digital platforms like Youtube are the gatekeepers of information,
因此 无论是否有意为之 YouTube这类的数字平台
whether they intended to be, or not.
都变成了信息的把关者
And unfortunately, media savvy con artists and extremist groups,
不幸的是 一些精通媒体的骗子和极端主义团体
like conspiracy theorists and white supremacists,
比如阴谋理论家和白人至上主义者
can take advantage of YouTube’s algorithms to push their agendas.
可以利用YouTube的算法来推动他们的计划
And even though YouTube has hired thousands of people
尽管YouTube雇佣了数千人
to sort out and remove the false or dangerous videos.
来整理和删除这些虚假或危险的视频
It’s not really working.
但并没有多大作用
Some of this stuff looks legit enough to sneak past all these filters.
有些东西看似合法到足以规避所有过滤器
Now, if you’re one of those types who’s up to no good,
如果你是不怀好意的那类人之一
it’s even easier to game YouTube
告诉你 在某些话题上缺乏内容的情况下
when there is a lack of content on certain topics.
玩转YouTube更容易
Something experts call a data void.
专家们称之为数据空白
You might be thinking,
你可能在想
everyone and their mom and their mom’s dog make videos.
只要是个人都会制作视频
How can that be a thing?
怎么可能还有话题会缺乏内容?
Well actually, it’s pretty common on YouTube.
事实上 这在YouTube上很常见
If you’re searching for something like,
如果你要搜索一些内容 比如
how to get that perfect smokey eye.
怎样画个完美的烟熏妆
Videos abound.
此类视频会很多
But, say you’re looking for videos about something super specific uncommon,
但是 假如你在找一些特别不常见的视频
like, hmm, toxic orange juice.
比方说有毒的橙汁
Yes, I just made that up right now.
是 我只是现编的
But for they sake of learning, just assume that it’s a thing
但是 为了方便分析 我们假设你是在
that you read about in a sketchy health blog,
一位橙汁汽水公司的雇员
written by someone who works for an orange soda company.
写的健康博客中看到这个话题的
Well, YouTube’s search algorithms wouldn’t have
YouTube的搜索算法不会给你
any high quality videos to return, only garbage.
返回任何高质量的视频 只有垃圾信息
And that, my friends, is a data void.
朋友 那就是一个数据空白
This happens all the time with breaking news.
这在突发新闻中很常见
During the time between the event,
在事情发生期间
and when journalists are fact checking and verifying what happened.
记者们都在核实并查证发生的事实时
Anyone can post anything about it,
任何人都可以发布相关的任何视频
no matter how untrue.
不论有多离谱
And if you search YouTube then, that’s all you’ll see.
若你在此时搜索YouTube 就会看到这一切
Then there’s just outdated or poorly phrased search terms.
就会看到过时的或措辞不佳的搜索词条
Another trick propagandists use is to coordinate around strategic phrases.
宣传者使用的另一技巧是调整关键短语
Something like,”crisis actors.”
诸如“危机演员”之类的
They spread them like crazy online,
他们在网上疯狂地传播这些词
and then sometimes journalists amplify them even more.
而有时候记者会随之进一步地夸大它们
So if you search for these terms, you will only see propaganda
若你搜索这些词条 只会看到这些宣传内容
until legit media organizations or experts catch up
直到合法的媒体组织或专家跟上节奏
and publish videos that debunk the phony terms.
发布能揭穿虚假术语的视频为止
Another way that propagandists get their message out
宣传者传达信息的另一种方式
is just by being good at social media.
就是擅长使用社交媒体
They figured out how to be popular.
他们知道怎样才能火起来
And we can’t forget that YouTube is a social media platform.
我们别忘了 YouTube是社交媒体平台
By engaging with, commenting,
宣传者们通过参与发表评论
and even guest appearing on each others channels.
甚至作为嘉宾出现在彼此的频道
They associate their videos with other videos
来将自己的视频和
created by popular influencers or even main stream media outlets.
由热门网红甚至主流媒体创作的视频产生联系
And ultimately, they can say whatever they want with no repercussions.
最终 他们能表达出任何想要的效果 而不会引发负面效果
There is no one but their viewers to fact check.
只有他们的观众才会去核实事实
And again, YouTube isn’t evil laughing
再次 YouTube不会在看到
while they stare at the piles of money
反疫苗注射人士带来的
they’ve made off anti-vaxxers.
大量收入而邪恶大笑
In early 2019, they promised to reduce
在2019年初 他们承诺减少
what they call “harmful borderline content”,
所谓的“不良擦边内容”
like false miracle cures or blatant false claims about historical events.
比如虚假的奇迹治疗法 或对历史事件的公然虚假声明
To be clear, they’re not banning these videos.
但说实话 他们并没有禁止这些视频
They just wanna keep them out of your auto plays.
他们只是不让它们自动在你面前播放而已
Look, YouTube didn’t set out to build a platform
YouTube并不是为了建立一个
around truth and civic responsibility.
围绕真相和公民责任的平台
Remember, they started out with millions of zany videos about cats,
记住 他们是从上百万个关于猫的滑稽视频开始的
thank the gods.
感谢上帝
And we could debate about their role in the media landscape for hours.
我们也许会对YouTube的媒体角色争论上数小时
But instead, lucky you, we’ve got tips.
但今天你走运了 我们这有一些小窍门
How can you help yourself avoid the traps of miss information and propaganda,
你如何才能避免掉入信息缺失和宣传的陷阱
and wander around safely on YouTube?
安全浏览YouTube
For some help, we met up with Safiya Noble,
为寻求帮助 我们采访了
the author of “Algorithms of Oppression”.
《压迫算法》的作者萨菲娅·诺布尔
She’s an expert on this stuff.
她是这方面的专家
– Hi Miles, hi everyone.
-你好 迈尔斯 大家好
So you’ve just learned a lot about algorithms
大家应该了解了不少有关算法的事情
and I’ve got a few tips that might also be helpful.
而我这里有一些可能也有所帮助的小窍门
The first is: be careful how you conduct a search query.
首先 请谨慎进行搜索查询
And by that, I mean, be specific.
我的意思是 请具体点
Use as many specific key words as you can.
尽可能多地使用特定的关键词
Don’t just generalize,
不要只是泛泛概括
because this will help you really key in
因为这将帮你真正获取到
on good, quality information, as best as you can get.
尽可能多的优质信息
If you see something that is a little bit off the rails,
如果发现有些东西有点擦边
pull back and realize that you might be engaging with content that has been optimized to
请撤回并想想 你可能遇上了被优化为
pull your attention away from something that you’re looking for.
用来转移你对你所找寻的东西的注意力的内容
YouTube’s a great place to start,
YouTube是一个不错的起点
but don’t just rely on YouTube for all your information.
但你不能仅靠YouTube来寻求所有信息
Go to a library, talk to people, read the news, read books,
你可以去图书馆 与人交谈 阅读新闻 阅读书籍
develop a deep kind of curiosity, but back that up with expertise
培养一种强烈的好奇心 但要用专业知识来充实它
because that’s really what’s going to inform you.
因为这才是你能真正获取到的知识
So there you have it.
你现在知道了吧
The more you know about things like how YouTube’s algorithms work,
你对YouTube的算法的工作原理了解得越多
the more you are empowered to trust or not trust what you’re seeing.
你就越有能力对你所看到内容的可信度做出判断
YouTube and Google and Instagram
YouTube Google和Instagram
do a lot to help you find information that they think you’ll like,
在很大程度上帮你找到它们觉得你会喜欢的信息
but it may not be the most accurate
但这些信息可能不是最准确的
and likely won’t offer multiple perspectives.
也可能不会提供多个视角
And until those companies figure out if they
在这些公司弄清楚他们是否
should have ethical publishing standards or not,
应该有出版道德标准之前
it’s on you to do that work. So,
你都需要自己去加以判断
So, after hearing all this, do you plan to do anything differently
在听了这些之后 你对YouTube上看到的视频的想法
to size up the videos you watch on YouTube?
是否会发生一些变化呢?
Let us know in the comments below.
请在下面的评论里告诉我们
If you learned something from this video,
若你从这视频中学到了东西
check out our other videos on deepfakes and false equivalence.
不妨看看我们其他关于深度伪造和虚假对等的视频
And as always, like and subscribe,
一如既往地 我希望大家点赞并订阅
and stay above the noise, y’all.
和我们一起凌驾于喧嚣之上吧
Peace out.
再见

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视频概述

本视频讲了YouTube的算法,并告诉大家如何避免因信息缺失和不实宣传掉入陷阱

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

cc

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CuFKYSSZtpo

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