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摘下耳机,你的听力正在受到损伤! – 译学馆
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摘下耳机,你的听力正在受到损伤!

You’re probably damaging your ears. Stop!

城市中随处可见戴耳机的人
– Look around the city andyou’ll notice the headphones.
很多人一戴就是几个小时
Everyone wears them,usually for hours at a time.
妈妈们总是警告我们
And all our moms warn us, not to listen
不要把耳机声音调的太大
to our headphones too loudly.
但是整天戴耳机到底有多大危害?
But how bad is it really for us to listen all day?
我应该担心自己的耳朵到什么程度?
How much do I really needto worry about my ears?
当然 妈妈们是对的
So of course, our momsare right.
事实上音乐声音太大确实会损伤听力
It turns out loud music damages yourhearing.
但是当你能注意到的时候 就为时已晚了
But you likely won’t notice any tangibleeffects until it’s too late.
事实上 所有持续性的噪声都会影响耳朵
In fact, any persistentnoise effects your ears.
耳机会损伤听力吗?
– Can headphones cause hearing loss?
当然会
Absolutely.
视频中为萨曼莎.安妮博士
That’s Dr. Samantha Anne,
她是耳鼻喉科小儿护理专家
an ENT who specializes in pediatric care.
所以 如果你整天听音乐或者播客
So if you’re blasting music or even podcast all day long,
你的耳朵就有危险了
You are going to be putting your ears at risk.
听力一经受损就无法恢复
And you can’t fix hearing loss.
听力一旦因为噪声而受损
– Once you lose to hearingloss because of noise exposure,
便永久是受损状态
there’s no going back.
无法修复 无法还原
You don’t repair it,there’s no getting it back.
我咨询了耳鼻喉科专家 南加州大学教授
– I called Dr. John Oghalai,
约翰.欧格莱恩博士
an ENT and chair at USC
去进一步了解听力损伤是如何造成的
to learn more about how we’reall ruining our hearing.
受到损伤的
– So you can damage the
可能是内耳的感觉毛细胞
sensory hair cells in the inner ear
也可以是神经
or you can damage the nerves.
将声音从毛细胞传到大脑的神经
The nerve that carries the sound from the hair cell to the brain.
声音过大会导致这些神经元和毛细胞死亡
You know if you listen to sounds that are too loud, then they die.
而且就目前所知 它们不能再生
And as far as we know, they don’t regenerate.
你可能都不会注意到自己的听力正在受损
– You also probably won’teven know you’re damaging
因为这些损伤往往微小而缓慢
your hearing because it oftenhappens slowly and subtly.
医生经常会建议大家去做听力检查 以建立一个基准
Doctors often suggest ahearing test to establish a baseline.
不过我猜你最近肯定没有做听力检查
But I’m sure you haven’t had a recent hearing test,
反正我肯定没做
I definitely haven’t.
唯一明显的听力损伤迹象是
The only real obvioussign of damage is once
耳朵里有响声 也就是耳鸣
you have ringing in yourears, aka, tinnitus.
耳鸣可不好 因为耳鸣意味着听力已经受到相当程度的损伤
That’s not good because that means your hearing has been significantly damaged.
此外 耳鸣的响声也非常讨厌
Plus ringing is obviously super annoying.
所以 我们不仅杀死了未成熟的耳部毛细胞
Alright, so we’re killingour baby ear hairs
甚至还可能损伤神经末梢 非常不好
and maybe damaging ournerve endings, fantastic.
不过 所有的声音都有害吗?
But is all sound bad for us?
不可能吧 对吗?
That can’t be possible, right?
如果声音非常大
– If you’re listeningto a really loud sound,
可以听的时间就很短
the time you can listen to is less.
如果是中等大小的声音
Or if it’s a medium level sound,
可以听的时间就稍微长一些
then you canlisten to it much longer.
欧格莱恩博士还有职业安全和健康管理局
– He and the OccupationalSafety and Health Administration
对不同分贝的声音有具体的建议
have some concretedecibel recommendations.
比如说 85分贝的声音
If you listen to somethingat 85 decibels for example,
可以一直听八小时而不受损伤
you can safely do so for eight hours.
相当于听八个小时的垃圾处理、搅拌机
This is like hearing agarbage disposal, blender
还有洗碗机的声音 没有什么损伤
or dishwasher for eighthours, it’s not so bad.
95分贝的声音只能听四个小时
At 95 decibels, you only getfour safe hours of listening.
这个声音比25英尺外的摩托车声略大一点
That’s slightly louder than a motorcycle that’s 25 feet away.
想象一下这种声音持续四个小时 简直凶残
Imagine that for four hours, it’s brutal.
你绝对不想听到
You want to almost never hear a chainsaw
高达120分贝的电锯声
which can top out at 120 decibels.
我发现大多数人不会在分贝层次上考虑声音
Now I recognize that most of us don’t think in decibel levels.
这样做的人很少 不过如果你好奇
I’m impressed if you dobut if you’re curious,
确实有能测量分贝的应用程序
apps do exist to measureyour decibel level outputs.
另外也有其他方式可以
Although there are other ways to measure
测量分贝 不过比较抽象
your decibel outputs that are more abstract.
一般准则 保持声音在舒适的水平
– General guidelines keepit at a comfortable level.
周围不要有过大的噪声
Should not be heard around you.
如果你远离噪声之后 仍然能听到耳朵里
And then if you take itoff and you’re hearing
有响声 或者周围的声音听起来有些不真切
ringing or the sound isa little bit muffled,
比如 你从一场盛大的音乐会现场出来
like when you come out ofa huge concert, for example
听到耳朵里有响声 而且好大一会儿
and you have that littlebit of ringing and muffled
听到的声音都不真切 你的听力已经受损
sound for awhile, that’sactually damage to the hearing.
耳机当然也会影响听力
– Of course our headphonescan effect this problem too.
戴耳机后耳朵内会成为密封状态
Noise isolation, which iswhen our headphones block
环境声被隔离 这种隔声效果使得
out ambient sound becauseof the seal they create
我们不用把声音调的很大
can help reduce the need for louder music.
噪声消除 应用电子的方法抵消外部噪声
Noise cancellation, which areelectronically counteracts
也很有用
outside noise can help too.
二者结合在一起会有不同的效果
The two taken togethermight make a big difference.
使用得当的话
– When used properly,
降低耳机播放音量
to lower the levels of decibels you are playing,
消噪耳机还是挺好的
noise canceling headphones are not a bad thing.
对听力有益
They could be helpful.
欧格莱恩博士和安妮博士表示
– Doctor Oghalai says regular old earbuds
普通旧式耳塞式耳机是最坏的
might be the worst, as does Dr. Anne.
塞到耳朵里面的那种
– The type of earbuds
耳塞式耳机
that kind of sit in the bowl of your ear
戴上后仍能听到外界声音
that you can still hear outside sounds
在我看来 可能是对听力最有害的东西
are probably in my mind, some of the worst ones you could have.
二人都认为消噪耳机有助于保护听力
– Both agree that noise cancellation can help, although,
但是你也不要以消除外部噪声为借口
if you’re using noise cancellation as an excuse to tune everything out
调大耳机音量
and then turn up yourmusic, don’t do that.
因为这样真的不好
That’s really bad. Okay,
我想知道自己听音乐的声音到底有多大
so I wanted to see how loudly I listened to music.
于是 我们走上街头 去看看
So we went out into theworld to see how loud
纽约到底有多吵
New York City truly is.
我们首先用噪声测量仪测量环境音量
We used a sound levelmeter to detect the outside
然后再看我的手机音量应该如何
volume level and thenlooked at how I adjusted
做出相应调整 重复多次
my volume on my iPhone in turn.
我们测试了耳罩式耳机 降噪耳机
We tested one over the earpair, one noise canceling,
隔音耳机 Airpods 耳塞式降噪耳机
one noise isolating,Airpods, noise canceling
以及头戴式耳机
earbuds and on ear headphones.
地铁里列车到站的时候非常吵
The subway was super loudwhenever trains were present
有时候甚至能到100分贝
and sometimes evenreached up to 100 decibels
不过车站没有车的时候还好
but it wasn’t too bad when there were no trains in the station.
城市里跟没有列车时的地铁站
The outside city was aboutas loud as when there were
差不多 但是有时候
no subways in the stationsbut sometimes it did
会更吵一点 比如说周围有救护车经过时
get a little bit louder, likewhen an ambulance drove by.
办公室通常是比较安静的
And the office was alwaysmore or less silent.
显然 这些都会影响到我耳机中音乐的音量
Obviously, this all effected how loudly I needed to turn up my music.
不过不管我在哪 所有的耳机
But all the headphones stuckto a clear pattern of use,
使用模式都是一样的
regardless of where I was.
使用普通耳罩式耳机和Airpods时
I had to turn my regular,over the ear headphones
我需要把声音调到最大
up the highest as well as my Airpods.
隔音耳机和降噪耳机
The noise isolatingheadphones and noise canceling
确实能很好的降低外界噪声
headphones really did agood job keeping external
我也可以把音量调的
sounds out which led meto keep the volume lower
比其他耳机小一点
than I had to with other pairs.
但即使是能降噪和隔音的耳机
But even with these noisecanceling and noise isolating headphones,
我在地铁站戴的时候音量也几乎
the subwaystation volume was nearly
是在办公室时的两倍
double that of the office.
这很合理 不过就像医生提醒的那样
This all makes sense butas the doctors warned,
我们很容易把音量调的过大
we could easily over do it with volume,
尤其是当耳机能够隔断外界声音时
especially when the headphones are able to keep sounds out.
我们为保护耳朵能做的就是留心一点
All we can do to take care of our ears is be mindful.
或许丢掉虚荣心 在音乐会上带耳塞
Maybe give up on your vanityand wear earplugs at concerts
因为你绝对绝对不想耳鸣的
because you never, everwant to hear that ringing.
如果你有孩子 那你可以
If you’re a parent, you can often
控制孩子听到的音量
set volume controls for your kids so they do
在一定分贝以内
n’t exceed a certain decibel level.
戴耳机是可以的
– It’s okay to use the headphones but just
但是一定要理智 要谨慎
be smart about it, be sensible.
欧格莱恩博士认为 在将来
– Dr. Oghalai thinks thefuture might actually
听力损伤可能会有好的解决方法
be bright when it comes to hearing loss.
更好的耳机制造技术可以
Better headphone technology could reduce
降低听力损伤程度
the amount of damage we do.
以后情况可能会有所改善
– It’s actually gonna getbetter over our lifetimes
因为我觉得现在的耳机已经比以前好很多了
because I think headphoneshave gotten better.
如果他这么觉得 我也是
– If he has hope, so do I.
嘿 有没有什么关于
Hey, do you have anything you’ve
科技和神话的事情是你想知道的?
been wondering about related to tech and myths maybe?
在评论区留言
Leave them in the comments below
我们一直在寻找新的想法哦
because we’re always looking for ideas.
另外 我们刚刚在油管建立了一个科学板块
Also, we just launched a newaverge science YouTube page
你一定得去看看 快去吧
that you should absolutelygo check out so go do that.

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耳机会对我们的听力造成一定影响。

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视频来源

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