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Apple大战FBI

Your smartphone is a civil rights issue | Christopher Soghoian

在2016年的春天里
In the spring of 2016,
一场由苹果公司
a legal battle between Apple and the
和FBI之间的法律纠纷
Federal Bureau of Investigation
吸引了全世界的注意
captured the world’s attention.
苹果在出产的手机产品里
Apple has built security features
设置了安全系统
into its mobile products
能够保护使用者的数据不被泄露
which protect data on its devices from everyone but the owner.
这意味着犯罪分子、
That means that criminals,
黑客
hackers and
是的
yes,
甚至是政府
even governments
都被拒之门外
are all locked out.
对于苹果客户来说 这是件非常棒的事
For Apple’s customers, this is a great thing.
但政府就不那么高兴了
But government is not so happy.
苹果公司做了一个清醒的决定
You see, Apple has made a conscious decision
让自己远离监视活动
to get out of the surveillance business.
苹果让监视变得极其困难
Apple has tried to make surveillance as difficult as possible
不论是政府还是其他任何他人
for governments and any other actors.
在全球智能手机市场上
There are really two smartphone operating systems
只有两个主流操作系统:
in the global smartphone market:
iOS和安卓
iOS and Android.
iOS是苹果公司的
iOS is made by Apple.
安卓系统是Google开发的
Android is made by Google.
苹果花了很长时间和金钱
Apple has spent a lot of time and money
来确保其产品具备极佳的安全性
to make sure that its products are as secure as possible.
苹果为储存在iPhone里的数据默认加密
Apple encrypts all data stored on iPhones by default,
苹果手机间传送的短信
and text messages sent from one Apple customer to another Apple customer
也被默认加密
are encrypted by default
无需用户进行任何设置
without the user having to take any actions.
这就意味着
What this means is that,
如果警察拿到一部带有密码的苹果手机
if the police seize an iPhone and it has a password,
他们将很难从手机中拿到任何数据
they’ll have a difficult time getting any data off of it,
几乎不可能
if they can do it at all.
相反安卓系统的安全性就没有那么好了
In contrast, the security of Android just really isn’t as good.
安卓手机 或者至少是大部分售卖给顾客的
Android phones, or at least most of the Android phones
安卓手机
that have been sold to consumers,
没有默认加密手机中储存的数据
do not encrypt data stored on the device by default,
安卓中内置的短信应用 也没有使用加密
and the built-in text messaging app in Android does not use encryption.
如果警察拿到了一部安卓手机
So if the police seize an Android phone,
他们很有可能从那部手机中拿到想要
chances are, they’ll be able to get all the data they want
获得的全部数据
off of that device.
两种智能手机
Two smartphones
由世界上最大的两个公司出产
from two of the biggest companies in the world;
一个默认保护用户数据
one that protects data by default,
一个不是
and one that doesn’t.
苹果售卖的是昂贵的产品
Apple is a seller of luxury goods.
占据高端市场
It dominates the high end of the market.
我们自然会期待奢侈品制造商的产品
And we would expect a manufacturer of luxury goods to have products
有更多功能
that include more features.
但并不是每个人都能买得起一部iPhone
But not everyone can afford an iPhone.
这就是安卓系统真正占领的市场:
That’s where Android really, really dominates:
中低端市场
at the middle and low end of the market,
十五亿无法负担
smartphones for the billion and a half people
或是不愿意花600美元
who cannot or will not spend
购买手机的用户
600 dollars on a phone.
但是
but
但安卓的市场优势
But the dominance of Android
导致了我所说的
has led to what I call
“数字安全分化”
the “digital security divide.”
也就是穷人和富人的隐私安全状况
That is, there is now increasingly a gap
出现了越来越大的差异
between the privacy and security of the rich,
那些能承受昂贵的电子保护数据的富人
who can afford devices that secure their data by default,
以及那些使用
and of the poor,
无法保证安全的电子产品的穷人
whose devices do very little to protect them by default.
所以
So,
想想看苹果的用户一般来说是:
think of the average Apple customer:
额…
en…
银行家、
a banker,
律师、
a lawyer,
医生、
a doctor,
政客
a politician.
这些人越来越倾向于使用这些手机
These individuals now increasingly have smartphones in their pockets
能够默认保护他们的通话 他们的短信息
that encrypt their calls, their text messages,
以及手机上的所有数据
all the data on the device,
而不需要做任何额外设置
without them doing really anything to secure their information.
相对的那些穷人
In contrast, the poor
和那些社会里最不受保护的人
and the most vulnerable in our societies
使用的电子设备却将他们轻易地
are using devices that leave them
暴露于被监控的危险
completely vulnerable to surveillance.
在美国 我居住的地方
In the United States, where I live,
非洲裔美国人更容易被怀疑
African-Americans are more likely to be seen as suspicious
或是更容易被记录在案
or more likely to be profiled,
更容易被国家列为监视目标
and are more likely to be targeted by the state with surveillance.
但是非洲裔美国人大多使用
But African-Americans are also disproportionately likely
那些无法保护他们隐私的
to use Android devices that do nothing at all
安卓系统手机
to protect them from that surveillance.
这是个问题
This is a problem.
我们必须记住 监视是一个工具
We must remember that surveillance is a tool.
一个被有权力的人掌控
It’s a tool used by those in power
用来对付没有权力的人的工具
against those who have no power.
我认为苹果这样的公司自动加密
And while I think it’s absolutely great
保护用户的隐私 真的值得称赞
that companies like Apple are making it easy for people to encrypt,
但如果那些能够保护自己
if the only people who can protect themselves
不被政府轻易监视的人
from the gaze of the government
是有钱且有权的
are the rich and powerful,
这就是个问题
that’s a problem.
这不仅仅是一个关于隐私
And it’s not just a privacy
或是网络安全的问题
or a cybersecurity problem.
这是一个公民权利的问题
It’s a civil rights problem.
因此安卓系统 没有默认安全设置的问题
So the lack of default security in Android
不仅仅是关乎那些使用这部电子产品的
is not just a problem for the poor and vulnerable users
贫穷且容易受伤害的用户
who are depending on these devices.
这实际关乎我们的民主问题
This is actually a problem for our democracy.
我会解释我所说的意思
I’ll explain what I mean.
当代的社会运动依赖科技
Modern social movements rely on technology —
从“珍视黑人生命”
from Black Lives
到“阿拉伯之春”
Matter to the Arab Spring
再到“占领华尔街”
to Occupy Wall Street.
这些运动的组织者
The organizers of these movements
和参与这些运动的人们
and the members of these movements
越来越多地使用智能手机
increasingly communicate
来联络和组织活动
and coordinate with smartphones.
于是那些感到自身政权 被这些运动所威胁的政府
And so, naturally governments that feel threatened by these movements
会盯上组织者和他们的智能手机
will also target the organizers and their smartphones.
很有可能
Now, it’s quite possible
未来的马丁路德金 或是曼德拉 又或者是甘地
that a future Martin Luther King or a Mandela or a Gandhi
会用iPhone来保护自己 不受政府监视
will have an iPhone and be protected from government surveillance.
但也有可能
But chances are,
他们的口袋里只有一台不超过
they’ll probably have a cheap,
20美元的安卓手机
$20 Android phone in their pocket.
如果我们对电子设备安全问题置之不理
And so if we do nothing to address the digital security divide,
如果我们不确保社会里的每个人
if we do nothing to ensure that everyone in our society
都能得到电子产品安全加密的保护
gets the same benefits of encryption
能够平等地保护自身不被国家监视
and is equally able to protect themselves from surveillance by the state,
不仅仅是那些贫穷和易受伤害的人
not only will the poor and vulnerable
会暴露在监视下
be exposed to surveillance,
未来的公民权利运动也有可能
but future civil rights movements may be crushed
在它们真正兴起之前被扼杀
before they ever reach their full potential.
谢谢
Thank you.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)
Helen Walters: Chris 谢谢你说这么多
Helen Walters: Chris, thank you so much.
我有一个问题要问你
I have a question for you.
我们近期从媒体获知
We saw recently in the press
脸书的马克·扎克伯格
that Mark Zuckerberg from Facebook
把电脑摄像头遮盖起来了
covers over his camera
并且也对自己的耳机麦克风做了些保护
and does something with his headphone mic jack.
我想问你一个比较私人的问题:
So I wanted to ask you a personal question, which is:
你也这样做吗?
Do you do that?
另外 我们在座的各位
And, on behalf of everyone here, particularly myself,
需要这样做吗?
Should we be doing that?
我们也需要把这些都遮盖起来吗?
Should we be covering these things?
克里斯托弗·索戈扬(CS): 我喜欢用创可贴来贴住他们
Christopher Soghoian: Putting a sticker — actually, I like Band-Aids,
因为你可以反复把它们撕掉再贴上
because you can remove them and put them back on
当你需要打电话或用网络电话的时候
whenever you want to make a call or a Skype call.
把摄像头贴起来可能是
Putting a sticker over your web cam
保护自己的隐私的最好方式
is probably the best thing you can do for your privacy
这是最简单易行的
in terms of bang for buck.
真的有很多恶意程序 病毒软件
There really is malware, malicious software out there
能够侵入你的摄像头
that can take over your web cam,
甚至都不会有指示灯亮起来
even without the light turning on.
犯罪分子、
This is used by criminals.
跟踪狂可以利用这种软件
This is used by stalkers.
你可以在网上用19.99美元
You can buy $19.99 “spy
买到窥视你的前女友”软件
on your ex-girlfriend” software online.
这真的很可怕
It’s really terrifying.
当然政府也会使用这些
And then, of course, it’s used by governments.
这同样也会导致性侵害案件
And there’s obviously a sexual violence component to this,
这样的偷窥监视活动很可能被用来
which is that this kind of surveillance can be used most effectively
侵害妇女或是任何人
against women and other people
让他们在社会上抬不起头
who can be shamed in our society.
哎…
ai…
即使你认为自己没什么要隐藏的
Even if you think you have nothing to hide,
至少假设你的生活中的孩子、少年
at the very least, if you have children, teenagers in your lives,
请确保贴住他们的摄像头 来保护他们
make sure you put a sticker on their camera and protect them.
HW: 哇噢 Thank 你非常棒CS: 谢谢你
HW: Wow. Thank you so much. CS: Thank you.
HW: 谢谢 Chris.
HW: Thanks, Chris.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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视频概述

你的智能手机关乎公民权利:保护手机隐私,切不可泄露,小心信息窃贼

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Ljimnn

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ZW-8-NCKMw

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