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时间真实存在或者仅仅只是错觉? – 译学馆
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时间真实存在或者仅仅只是错觉?

Your Brain Tells You Time Is Real — But Is It Lying to You? | Dean Buonomano

关于时间的本质 一般有两个假设或理论
So there’s two general hypotheses or theories about the nature of time.
其中一个我们称为“现时论”
One of them we’ll call Presentism.
现时论的观点是 只有现在是真实的
And Presentism the notion is that only the present is real.
过去曾经是真实的
The past was real.
未来及未来宇宙的某些结构将会是真实的
The future, some configuration of the future universe, will be real.
但在此刻 只有现在是真实的
But for now only the present is real.
另一个相反的观点被称为永恒论
In contrast the opposing view is called Eternalism.
在永恒论里 过去、现在和未来都同样真实
In Eternalism you have: the past, present and future are all equally real.
从而现在只是时间里的任意点或任意时刻
So that makes the present just an arbitrary point in time or an arbitrary moment in time.
因此 一个用来思考的方法是:现在相对于时间 就如同这里相对于空间
So one way to think about this is: Now is to time as Here is to space.
因此 在同等意义上可以说 我恰好在这里这一点
So in the same sense that I happen to be here
而一些观众就在外面空间里的其它点
and some viewers are out at some other point in space
( 我们都能适应这个观点 空间中的其它点同样真实)
(and we’re all comfortable with that notion that other points in space are equally real),
在永恒论里 你必须适应 时间里的其它时刻
in Eternalism you have to be comfortable with the notion that other moments in time
都和此刻同样真实 这只是一个任意的时刻
are as equally real as this moment in time and this is just an arbitrary moment.
因此 在这一观点下 其它一些时刻 或是时间中的连续时刻
And so under that view, there are other moments—or there’s a continuum of moments in time—that
本质上早已奠定于宇宙之内
are essentially already laid out within the universe.
这样的宇宙在物理学中被称为 块状宇宙
And that universe in physics is called the Block Universe.
在块状宇宙里 关于时间旅行的讨论是可行的
Under the Block Universe it makes sense to engage in a conversation about time travel,
因为还有其它时刻可去
because there’s other moments to go to.
这不是在说时间旅行是否切实可行
Not that this does speak to the issue of whether time travel is actually plausible or not;
那也许不行
it’s probably not.
但它使得讨论可行 因为时间里有其它时刻存在
But it enables the conversation because other moments in time exist.
在现时论里 我们可以把时间旅行的可能性去掉
Under Presentism we can pretty much take the possibility of time travel off the table because
因为没有其它时刻可去——只有当下是真实的
there’s no other moments to go to—Only the present is real.
所以如果问你是否能旅行到并不存在的过去或未来的某个时刻
So it doesn’t make sense to ask if you can travel to moments in time in the past or future
这样的问题是毫无意义的
that don’t exist.
现在神经科学和物理学之间有一些冲突
Now there’s a clash here between neuroscience and physics.
直观看来时间似乎正在改变
So intuitively time seems to be changing.
我们人类能体验到时间的流动
We humans experience the flow of time.
在永恒论里 一切早已注定 而时间的流逝是一个深远的谜题
Under Eternalism, where everything is already laid out, the flow of time is a deep mystery
因为看起来 如果所有时间里的时刻早已被奠定在
because it would seem to be that, if all the moments in time are already laid out within
块状宇宙里 那时间的流逝应该不存在 或者必定是一个错觉
the block universe, that the flow of time shouldn’t exist or must be an illusion.
所以 如果时间的流逝 如果我们对时间流逝的主观经验只是一个错觉
So if the flow of time, if our subjective sense of the flow of time is an illusion,
之所以物理学和神经科学有这种冲突是因为物理学的主导理论是
we have this clash between physics and neuroscience because the dominant theory in physics is
我们生活在块状宇宙之中
that we live in the Block Universe.
我应该清楚:没有共识
And I should be clear: there is no consensus.
没法百分百的统一 但物理学的标准观点就是这样
There’s no 100 percent agreement, but the standard view in physics is that—
这很大程度上是来自相对论——
and this comes in large part from Relativity—
我们是存在于一个永恒论的宇宙里
that we live in an Eternalist Universe,
存在于一个 过去、现在与未来都是同等真实的块状宇宙里
in a Block Universe, in which the past, present, and future are equally real.
这让我们想到一个问题 我们是否可以相信大脑告诉我们的
So this raises the question of whether we can trust our brain to tell us
时间正在流逝
that time is flowing.
所以我认为我们需要改善物理与神经科学之间的对话
So I think we need to have an improved dialogue between physics and neuroscience here.
一方面 我们必须决定是否认同 我们对于时间流逝的主观经验
So on one hand we have to decide is if we want to accept that our subjective sense of
是否是宇宙中的一种客观事实
the flow of time is an objective fact about the universe.
我们似乎觉得 时间在流逝 事情在变化 过去在消失
We perceive time to be flowing; Things seem to be changing; The past seems to be vaporizing
而未来是完全开放的
into the past and the future seems to be wide open.
现在如果我们是存在于块状宇宙里
Now if it’s the case that we live in the Block Universe,
这在感觉上将是非常虚幻的
that seems to be illusory in a very deep sense.
所以我们必须决定 是否要把我们对时间流逝的主观体验
So we have to decide if we want to take our subjective sense of the flow of time
作为宇宙中的一种客观事实
as an objective fact about the universe.
这必须由物理学来解释
That must be explained by physics.
或者相反 我们对时间流逝的主观体验只不过是一个错觉
Or in contrast, is our subjective sense of the flow of time merely an illusion
(在这个词最深层意义上的一个错觉 因为我们感受到了物理世界中不存在的东西)
(an illusion in the deepest sense of that word because we’re perceiving something that doesn’t exist in the physical world)
而在物理学中不需要解释(因为它不存在)?
that physics doesn’t need to explain (because it doesn’t exist)?
因此 神经科学需要找到解决方案的来源
And thus neuroscience needs to address where the solution comes from.
这种错觉可能与意识问题密切相关
And this illusion is presumably tightly coupled with the problem of consciousness.

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视频概述

时间是真实存在的吗?本课为我们介绍了物理学中关于时间的两种假说,并讨论了关于时间真实或虚幻的本质问题。

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翻译译者

B11101001

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瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9khd_PNSkg

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