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芬太尼对大脑的影响 – 译学馆
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芬太尼对大脑的影响

Your Brain On Fentanyl (FIXED)

为了阐明一些关于药物剂量的要点 因此重新上传本视频感谢您的理解
This video was reuploaded to clarify some points about dosage. Thanks for understanding.
芬太尼不是一种新药
Fentanyl is not a new drug but has seen
但在近三年来它非常的火
such a dramatic increase in the past three years
甚至在北美火成了一个大麻烦
that has become a crisis in North America.
使用芬太尼时稍有不慎便会使你过量用药
Simply touching it may cause you to overdose.
那么 芬太尼究竟是如何作用于人的大脑和机体的呢
So, what exactly does it do to your brain and body?
芬太尼是一种阿片类药物
Fentanyl is an opioid that can inhibit pain signals
能阻断痛觉信号和大脑与脊髓的多重通路
and multiple pathways along the brain and spinal cord.
这是它最初被定为止痛药的原因
This is why it was initially prescribed for pain-relief.
它亦可使你的大脑产生额外的多巴胺
It also causes your brain to make extra dopamine
产生强烈的欣快感和轻松感
creating sensations of intense euphoria and relaxation.
本质上 芬太尼通过和内啡肽相同的方式与阿片受体结合
Essentially, fentanyl highjacks your body’s built-in system of endorphins
从而挟持身体内部系统中的内啡肽
by binding to your opioid receptors much in the same way your endorphins do,
但是芬太尼有着明显更强的作用水平
but at a significantly stronger level.
这可能听起来很有趣 但激活这些受体
This might sound fun, but activating these receptors can also suppress
也会抑制大脑对于机体内二氧化碳水平的检测
your brain’s ability to detect CO2 levels in the body,
可能使人停止呼吸
potentially causing a person to stop breathing.
另外 其副作用包括头晕
On top of this, side effects include dizziness,
发冷 呕吐 昏厥 排尿困难和便秘
chills, vomiting, fainting, difficult to urinating and extreme constipation.
此外 芬太尼比其他阿片类药物作用效果更强
In addition, fentanyl is much stronger than other opioids.
是吗啡的一百倍 海洛因的五十倍
one-hundred times stronger than morphine and fifty times stronger than heroin.
许多药物发挥作用 需要通过血脑屏障
For many drugs to work, they need to pass the blood-brain barrier.
这个屏障允许小分子 脂溶性物质通过
This barrier allows small, fat-soluble substances to pass
并禁止水溶性分子通过
and waterloving molecules to be inhibited.
吗啡和海洛因二者都是脂溶性的
Both morphine and heroin are lipid-soluble but they have
但是它们的亲水基团使他们通过屏障的速度变慢
polar waterloving group that make them pass the barrier much more slowly.
然而芬太尼是完全非极性且脂溶性物质
whereas fentanyl is extremely non-polar and fat-soluble
进入大脑仅需数秒
entering the brain within seconds.
这意味着你仅需微量便能够亢奋
This means you only need tiny amount to get high.
因此这就是其一部分危险所在
And that’s where in part the danger lies.
芬太尼的致死剂量是大约两毫克
A lethal dose of fentanyl can be around two milligrams.
就相当于两粒盐的量
and test to that looks like two grains of salt.
由于给药需要高度的精确性
And since a high level of precision is needed to dose it effectively,
那么这样就很容易过量服用
it’s very easy to overdose.
实际上 有些被报道的事件
In fact, there are some reported incidents of
现场急救员通过不慎的接触芬太尼粉末而过量服用
first responders ODing from simply touching the fentanyl powder
或是吸入它的粉尘 虽然一些毒理学家怀疑
or inhaling its dust. Though some toxicologists doubt
这些情况的准确性
the accuracy of these cases.
如果能够及时处理(那么这种情况便不会发生)
If it can be administrated in time and injection of
且注射纳洛酮可以
and naloxone can be given to a person
通过阻塞阿片受体而缓解过量反应
which works to stop an overdose by blocking opioid receptors.
但是科学跟不上
But the science cannot keep up with the rate of new
芬太尼类似物研发的更新率 像卡芬太尼
fentanyl analogs being produced, like carfentanil,
药效是吗啡的一万倍
which is 10000 times more powerful than morphine,
可能使用于化学战中
and has been cited for its possible use in chemical warfare.
当今 在美国 药物过量导致死亡的现象正在迅速上升
Today, drug overdose death in America are rising faster than ever.
2016年就有65000例死亡人员
With 65000 deaths in 2016,
相比2015年有59000例
in compare to 59000 in 2015.
并且 阿片类药物的使用也是一个关键的问题
And opioid-use is the crux of the problem.
可供参考的是 它高于枪杀案的死亡人数
For context, this is higher than the peak gun deaths,
高于艾滋病和车祸的死亡人数
peak HIV deaths and peak car crash deaths.
所有的证据指向此问题
All evidence points towards the problem worsening by
在2017年末将会恶化
the end of 2017. The recent
最近的研究指出 阿片类药物的普遍药方都有成瘾性
research points to widespread prescription of opioids for pain which leads to addiction.
这也是一个简单的接近非处方药的方法
There is also one easy of access for non-prescribers
导致上百万的药片落入非手
causing millions of tablets to fall into the wrong hand.
危机变得越来越清晰了
As the danger becomes more clear,
医生减少了阿片类药物的处方
doctors decrease prescription of opiates.
但是这并没有改变数千人已经成瘾的事实
But this didn’t change the fact that
导致他们在黑市寻求此药
thousands of people were addicted, causing them to seek out illegal markets.
随着需求量的不断增加 非法药品市场推出更廉价的产品方案
With an increase in demand, illicit drug markets turned to cheaper production solutions.
不像海洛因是由罂粟花合成的
Unlike heroin which is synthesized from poppies,
芬太尼不是高度合成物并且可以在任何地方制作且价格不高
fentanyl isn’t highly synthetic and can be made anywhere for a cheap.
中国成为了制作芬太尼的重中之地
China has become a heavyweight in manufacturing fentanyl
北美的法律正试图严控供应链
and North American law is working to seize supply.
然而 联合国仍然督促寻求解决办法
However, the UN urges that solution so the crisis will
所以困难在于如何说服人们不要使用芬太尼
lie in persuading people not to use opiates,
就算封锁中国市场 芬太尼还是会在别的国家继续生产
as blocking China’s market may simply cause production to move to another nation.
几个专家请求政府支持
Several experts are calling for government support
让遭受药瘾的人去戒毒所
for safe consumption sites where people suffering addiction
可以被监督用药 使过度用药的风险降到最低
can be supervised, minimizing risk of overdose,
并且支持咨询和使用抗药剂来帮助人们停药
and supported with conselling and anti-withdrawl drugs that can help people stop using.
但是一些药物对你有利嘛
But can some drugs be good for you?
请看看我们这的第二个视频
Check out our second video here
我们发现的一些非法药物有着惊人的益处
where we look to the surprising benefits of some illegal drugs
还有新研究正在揭示的事实
and what new research is revealing.
点击屏幕或者是描述中的链接来观看视频
Check it out by clicking the screen or using the link in the description.
而且可以订阅我们观看更多的科普视频 每周四更新
And subscribe for more weekly science video every Thursday.

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视频概述

芬太尼的使用有利有弊,它是如何作用于机体的呢?

听录译者

airgrad

翻译译者

【MED】瑾荷

审核员

译学馆审核员U

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0tW8FWBm1g

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