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你的大脑为爱连线—冥想帮你尽情表达 – 译学馆
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你的大脑为爱连线—冥想帮你尽情表达

Your Brain Is Hardwired for Love—Meditation Helps You Fully Express It | Daniel Goleman

对冥想初学者来说 最吃惊的发现
Perhaps the most startling finding for meditation beginners
莫过于慈爱冥想或慈悲冥想
comes with what’s called compassion or loving kindness meditation.
这是一种伴随着
This is a practice that often accompanies
正念呼吸的练习
mindfulness the breath for example.
举例来说 冥想结束后
People will do at the end of the session
他们会想起对他们好的人
they bring to mind people that have been kind to them
也思考自己
they think of themselves
所爱之人
they think of people they love
任何地方的任何人
people they know everyone and everywhere
并祝愿他们
and wish them well
平安幸福 健康
may they be safe, happy, healthy
和免于受苦
free from suffering.
事实证明 这种重复祝福的话语
And it turns out that the repetition of those phrases
可以影响精神状态
is psychoactive it actually changes
让大脑产生变化
the brain and how
并从一开始就改变你的感觉
you feel right from the get go.
比方说 我们发现冥想初学者
We find, for example, that people who do this meditation
真的变得更善良
who’ve just started doing it actually are kinder
更乐于助人
they’re more likely to help someone in need
更慷慨
they’re more generous
也更快乐
and they’re happier.
大脑中的某些区域
It turns out that the brain areas that help us
会让我们想要帮助在乎的人
or that make us want to help someone that
这些区域与控制快乐感觉的神经回路相连
we care about also connect with the circuitry for feeling good.
所以善良使人心情愉快
So it feels good to be kind and all of that
所有这些感觉出现得很早
shows up very early in just a few hours really
在做整个冥想练习前几个小时就出现
of total practice of loving kindness or compassion meditation.
所以我们觉得从生物学上来讲
So we feel that the brain is somehow
大脑已经准备好了更好地去爱
biologically prepared to learn to love better.
大脑活跃度增强的那一部分
The brain area that become stronger in its activity
与父母对孩子的爱是一样的
is the same as a parent’s love for a child.
这是我们与其他哺乳动物共有的
It’s the mammalian caretaking circuitry.
哺乳动物的照顾回路
We share it with all other mammals.
对于人类来说
And in humans it’s extremely important for
三种同理心的第三种极为重要
the third of three kinds of empathy.
第一种同理心让你可以换位思考
There’s empathy that allows you to understand better
更好的理解别人
how someone thinks to take their perspective
从而让你做一个好的沟通者
lets you be a good communicator.
第二种同理心是指情感上的连接
There’s the empathy where you connect emotionally;
你可以立刻感受到别人的感受
you feel what the other person feels immediately;
在自己身上感受
you sense in your own body what’s going on
别人的情感
in the other person.
这使人亲密或相互吸引 也是非常重要的
This allows rapport and chemistry, it’s also very important.
但是第三种同理心
But the third kind of empathy
叫移情关怀
is what’s called empathic concern;
这是一种
it’s the feeling
关心他人 想帮助他人的感受
of caring about another person wanting to help them.
而这是同情的基础
It’s the basis of compassion.
你可以只拥有前两种
You can have the first two and
而不需要过于关怀
not to be particularly concerned or caring
但如果三种都有
but if you have all three
那你就有了完整的同理心
then you’ve got the whole package of empathy
我们发现慈爱冥想
and we find that love and kindness meditation
能够增强第三种
strengthens that third, both in terms of
不仅改变行为 感觉
how you behave, how you feel
还可以改变大脑反应
and what’s happening in the brain.
但当我们进一步研究时
One of the paradoxes we found when we started looking very closely
发现了一个悖论
at all of the research
传统所说的
that’s done on meditation was a kind of a disconnect
重要的方法
between what the classic traditions
与科学研究出来的
from which these methods come are saying is important
并不一样
and what scientists are studying.
很重要的一点是:
One of the most important things,
不管是基督教文学
whether you’re looking in the Christian literature
佛教文学 犹太教文学还是印度教文学
or the Buddhist literature or Jewish literature or Hindu literature,
无一例外
doesn’t matter, all
那些传统思想学派
of the meditative traditions within those
都认为
classical schools of thought are saying the
冥想最重要的是
most important thing is that
少关注自己
you become less focused on yourself,
少在乎自己
caring only about yourself,
以及少自私一点
less selfish as it were
更关心别人的需要
and more open to the needs of others,
更有同情心
more compassionate, more caring
更关心他人 更和蔼可亲
more pleasant to other people.
尽管传统观点认为
And even though the classic traditions say
这些至关重要
this is what counts
但是科学却认为作用很小
in terms of the scientific interest it was minimal.
6000个研究中
We found maybe three or four studies…
只有有3个或是4个
remember out of 6,000…
在方法论的研究中
that really were tight methodologically
提到了这些内容
and spoke to this,
不过这仍然是个好消息
but here again the news was good.
如果看一下长期冥想者
If you look at the longer-term meditators,
那些在一生中
people who have done more than say 1,000 or 2000
做过1000或2000个小时的人
hours of meditation over their entire life,
这些冥想是很自然发生的
and this happens naturally, let’s
比如每天早上出门前冥想半小时
say you do a half hour of sit every morning
花个十年二十年
before you go out for the day, well after a decade
时间就这么多了
or two it does add up.
看上去似乎这种日积月累
And it seems that that cumulative amount
确实会让人少一点自私
does make people less selfish, less just caring
少关心自己并且对他人更坦诚 关心
about me and more open to other people around them, more
更容易与他人和谐相处 更容易有同情心
caring, more able to tune in, more able to empathize.
这点也在大脑改变上有所体现
And this also shows up in a brain change,
我们认为这很重要
which we think is quite significant, which
长期冥想者大脑中的位核
is that the nucleus incumbents,which is the focus of craving
是我必须拥有某种东西的渴望聚集处
of I got to have that,
举例来说 吸毒者的
drug addiction for example,
位核实际上要比长期做冥想者要小
actually become smaller in longer-term meditators.r
这似乎与人们在感情生活中缺乏了
And that seems to be related to this lack
“我 我 我”的
of “I me mine” in how people behave and how
行为和思想有关
they think in their emotional life.
当然 更令人吃惊的还体现在
And we see it most strikingly, of course,
那些奥运级别的冥想者
in Olympic level meditators where these are
他们做了10000小时或更多
people who have done 10,000 or more…
10000到62000小时的冥想者
10,000 to 62,000 hours of meditation
他们真的很无私
and they are genuinely selfless people, but they’re
他们精神充实 相处起来也非常愉快
very nourishing very enjoyable to be with
因为他们的注意力在你身上
because they pay attention to you, they really
他们真的关注身边的人
focus on the person they’re with and how they can be
服务于他们 关心他们的需求
of service of service or what do you need now now
这使人精神振奋
and it’s very refreshing.

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慈爱冥想可以改变大脑,使人变得更善良

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