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为什么我们的身体会攻击移植器官 – 译学馆
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为什么我们的身体会攻击移植器官

Your Body Is Designed to Attack a New Organ, Now We Know Why

想象一下你在等待一个新的肺或肾的移植你终于等到一个 并做了手术
Imagine waiting for a new lung or kidney transplant … you finally get one, go through intense surgery.
然而几年后 你的身体却发出这样的信号——不 我不喜欢它 滚出去
And then after a few years, your body’s like NOPE I DON’T LIKE THIS THING,
然后排斥了这个重要的器官
GET IT OUT and rejects that vital organ.
真让人失望 对吧?
… heartbreaking, right?
移植排斥发生的频率比你所想象的更加频繁
Transplant rejection happens, and more often than you’d think.
在10到12年内 大约50%的移植器官会有排异反应
About 50% of all transplanted organs are rejected within 10-12 years.
这是个令人吃惊的数字
That’s a staggering number.
分子水平上的不能相容导致移植器官的排异反应
Organ rejection happens at the molecular level, something just isn’t compatible, and finally,
科学家认为他们已经发现了这种反应的基本原理
scientists think they’ve uncovered the basis of this response.
这是一个字面上看上去很小但是实际上非常复杂的事情
This is a-metaphorically-huge-but-literally microscopic-thing!
因此我们需要知道我们的身体是如何处理一个外来的肺 肾脏或其它器官的
So we have to understand how the body deals with a foreign lung or liver or whatever.
这种反应起源于免疫系统
And that relationship starts with the immune system.
所以 假设你找到一个新的肾脏 它是个完整的器官(生命系统的层次之一)
So, let’s say you’re getting a new kidney … It’s a whole ecosystem of living things.
它是外来的
And it’s ALIEN.
免疫系统知道它是外来的 因为它携带了不同于接受者自身的细胞
The immune system knows this because the cells on the donor organ are different . But once
而且一旦免疫系统识别出来 它绝不会坐视不理
it knows, it’s definitely not going to ignore it.
对免疫系统而言移植器官可能是一个大的病毒或有害物质
As far as the immune system is concerned it could be a giant virus or poison!
所以 免疫系统尝试着清除它
So, it tries to get rid of it!
免疫系统是被设计来攻击它无法识别的事物的
Your immune system is designed to attack anything it doesn’t recognize.
人体免疫系统中有两个主要部分在其中起着重要的作用
And there are two main parts within the human immune system that are responsible for this
先天性免疫系统和适应性免疫系统
1-2 punch: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system.
适应性免疫系统就是我们通常认为的免疫系统
The adaptive immune system response is what you think of, when you think “immune system.”
这是一级戒备状态
This is defcon 1.
白细胞准备好去攻击入侵者
White blood cells, are ready to attack the invador
但白细胞不主动攻击任何事物
But, white bloods don’t just attack anything.
它们需要个识别者
They need a snitch.
它们需要被告知去攻击什么
They need to be told what to attack.
引起先天性免疫系统作出响应的触发物 正是科学家所忽略的
That’s what’s been elusive for scientists, the triggers for the innate immune system response.
T细胞是怎样得到充分刺激 去攻击你新移植的器官的?
How do the t-cells get fired up enough to attack your shiny new organ?
耐心听下去 我们将会学到这其中的分子学原理
Bear with me, we’re about to get real molecular.
在《免疫学》上发表的一篇文章提到 T细胞不会轻易发动攻击
In a paper published in Science Immunology, they found that t-cells won’t launch an offensive
除非另一种免疫细胞 树突状细胞发出入侵警报
unless another immune cell, called a Dendritic cell, yells, “intruder alert!”
树状状细胞负责监视一种叫做SIRP-alpha的分子
Dendritic cells are on the lookout for a molecule called SIRP-alpha.
如果把你的肾脏植入我的身体 那么SIRP-alpha分子将会出现不匹配的情况
If your kidney is put in my body, the SIRP-alpha don’t match.
当它们不匹配的时候 在单核细胞上的受体 即CD47就会与SIRP-alpha蛋白质结合在一起
When they aren’t a match, a receptor on a monocyte called CD47 binds to that SIRP-alpha protein…
CD47是另外一种免疫细胞
The monocytes are another type of immune cells.
一旦这种结合发生 树状细胞就发出警报 它们之间的战争就会打响
Once that binding happens, the dendritic cell rings the alarm and the big guns roll in…
这就是引起器官排异反应的原因
and that’s what causes organ rejection.
每次蛋白质的相互作用 都会引发链式反应(导致移植的肾被排斥)
Basically a protein interaction sets off a chain reaction that eventually leads to bye, bye, kidney.
对分子本质的研究中 令人激动的部分是
The exciting part of this nitty-gritty molecular discovery is that researchers think they can
研究者认为他们能够阻止SIRP-alpha和CD47的相互作用
block that interaction between the SIRP-alpha and CD47.
基本上 单核细胞从不紧密联结合在一起 免疫系统也就处于无应答状态
Basically, the monocytes never get bound up, so the immune system stays cool.
这可以阻止器官排异并引导机体接受外来器官
This could prevent organ rejection and lead to acceptance!
但是还需要更多的研究来证实
But more research is needed.
而且 既然我们要寻找解决方法 我们可以将捐献者的SIRP-alpha与接受者的进行配对
Plus, now that we know to look for it, we can match the SIRP-alpha from donors and recipients,
这很可能会使器官排斥的几率全面地降低
possibly causing lower organ rejection rates overall!
等了多年的器官 却只能被排斥出去 这对接受者来说是毁灭性的打击
Being on a list for an organ for years, only to have it rejected is devastating for the
但是那个移植过来的肾脏也许可以在别人的身体中发挥作用
recipient, but think about it — maybe that kidney could have worked in someone else!
我们越了解这个过程 就越能将移植器官送入合适的人体内
The more we know about this process, the better we’ll be able to get organs to their forever
并让移植器官安全的进入人体内部
homes, and keep them safe inside the crazy neighborhood that is the human body.
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进行认证和设想的第一步
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单移植一个器官就够难了
It’s hard enough to transplant a singular organ, but some scientists are actually trying
但有些科学家还在尝试移植人头
to transplant a human head..
我猜 可能还有科学家在尝试更换整个人体?
Or I guess a whole human body?
你可以看看我们的关于这事的视频
Check out our video about it, here.
你们还有什么亟待解决的科学问题需要回答吗?
Do you guys have any burning science questions you want us to answer?
在下方的评论区留言让我们知道 一定要喜欢这个视频哦!记得订阅我们的栏目
Let us know down in the comments, be sure to like this video, and subscribe so you never
这样你就再也不会错过任何一集Seeker的视频
miss an episode of Seeker.

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视频概述

器官移植的排异反应一直困扰着科学家,现在排异反应的分子机制已经发现,未来器官移植的排异反应概率将大大降低。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfDL9PWubCs

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