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阑尾到底有没有用?

Your Appendix Isn't Useless, After All

This episode is sponsored by Squarespace.
本视频由Squarespace赞助播出
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它能创建美丽的在线网页 帮您经营企业
《科学秀》
The appendix gets a bad rap.
阑尾名声不好
You probably never think about it
你可能从来没想过还有这个东西
unless it’s the reason you’re doubled over in abdominal pain.
直到有一天它让你腹痛
And for the most part,
很大程度上
it gets written off as a useless organ left over from our evolutionary past.
阑尾被看作人类进化过程中遗留的无用器官
But even though you can usually ignore it,
虽然一般情况下你可以忽略它
you’ve got to give your appendix some credit,
但得对你的阑尾有点信心
because it might not be as useless as you thought.
因为它并非你想的如此无用
The appendix has evolved in mammals at least twenty-nine times,
哺乳动物的阑尾至少进化了29次
which is a pretty good sign
这是一个相当好的迹象
that it does something.
表明阑尾是有用的
And back in 2016, an international team of researchers set out to understand
2016年 一个国际研究小组着手研究
why it appears so many times.
为什么阑尾的存在感那么强
They started by looking at what kinds of things animals with appendixes have in common.
他们研究的起点是有阑尾动物的共同之处
But first, they had to define what an appendix even is,
首先 他们必须为阑尾下定义
since the thing we call an appendix
因为在哺乳动物中
comes in all shapes and sizes across mammals.
我们称之为阑尾的东西有各种形状和大小
As a starting point, the researchers defined it as
首先 研究人员将其定义为
a section of tissue extending from the cecum,
从盲肠延伸出来的一段组织
the beginning of the large intestine.
也就是大肠的起点
Then they used computer models
然后他们利用计算机模型
to analyze data on hundreds of mammals.
分析了数百种哺乳动物的数据
They gathered information about their habitats and social behavior
他们收集了有关其栖息地和社会行为的信息
and, of course, whether or not they had an appendix.
当然这些哺乳动物都有阑尾
They concluded two things.
由此得出来两点
The first was that the appendix has evolved more times than it’s been lost,
首先 阑尾进化的次数比退化的次数多
so it must have some kind of evolutionary advantage.
所以它肯定有某种进化优势
And second, after finding high concentrations of lymph tissue,
第二 阑尾有丰富的淋巴组织
which protects the body against foreign invaders,
能保护身体免受外来物质的侵犯
they concluded that the appendix is involved in immunity across mammals.
他们认为阑尾参与了所有哺乳动物的免疫功能
And that seems to be the case for humans as well.
人类也不例外
Within the inner layers of the appendix, we find all kinds of densely packed immune cells,
我们发现阑尾里有各种密集的免疫细胞
including T and B cells and natural killer cells,
包括T细胞 B细胞以及自然杀伤细胞
which are all important parts of your body’s immune response.
这些都是你身体免疫反应的重要部分
But we also find a reservoir of good gut bacteria hanging out in there.
我们也发现阑尾是很好的肠道细菌贮藏库
It’s the same type of bacteria that line the insides of the intestine,
其内部的细菌类型与肠道内部排列的细菌类型相同
creating a protective barrier against invaders.
能制造抵御入侵者的保护屏障
Given its prime position just off the colon,
鉴于阑尾的主要位置在结肠外
researchers think the appendix might
研究人员认为在危急时刻
dish out emergency rations of gut bacteria
比如腹泻严重的时候
in times of crisis, like during cases of extreme diarrhea.
阑尾可能会排出应急的肠道细菌
Diarrhea can flush out your intestines,
腹泻会清空你的肠子
but the appendix may be able to provide a fresh population of the gut bacteria
但正常阑尾能重建肠道菌群
that keeps your digestion on track.
维持你的消化功能
They say you don’t know what you have until it’s gone and it’s true.
都说 直到失去后才懂得珍惜 这句话很对
One way to appreciate the immune function of the appendix is
欣赏阑尾免疫功能的一个方法就是
to see what happens when it comes out.
看看割掉阑尾后会发生什么
A study published in 2015 found that
2015年发表的一项研究发现
patients who contracted a particular bacterial infection,
没有阑尾的人
called Clostridium difficile, were twice as likely to develop a severe infection
感染特定细菌(被称为艰难梭状芽胞杆菌)的比率
if they didn’t have an appendix.
是正常人的两倍
That study alone doesn’t prove that the appendix prevents infection,
虽然单凭那项研究并不能证明阑尾能防止感染
but it does raise questions about whether or not surgeons should remove the appendix
但外科医生为阑尾健康的人切除阑尾
when they don’t need to,
还是值得质疑的
since that might actually cause trouble rather than prevent it.
因为那可能会引起麻烦而不是防止麻烦
That said, appendicitis can be deadly,
也就是说 阑尾炎可能是致命的
so if your appendix needs to come out,
所以如果你需要割阑尾
it’s coming out.
那就割吧
But otherwise, maybe we shouldn’t be so quick to dismiss this organ
但阑尾若健康 我们也许不该这么快就摒弃这个器官
that’s usually just trying to be a pal.
因为它可以与你和平相处
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Squarespace让网站设计变得毫无痛苦
You don’t even have to know how to code!
你甚至不必知道如何编程
We actually designed the SciShow website in Squarespace
我们的《科学秀》实际上就是用Squarespace设计的
because it was easy to use and update.
因为它的使用和更新都很便捷
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您可以自定义内容的布局 拖放图像
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并整合PayPal和Venmo这样的应用
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Squarespace还可以进行实时分析
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帮您完善电子邮件
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还能让您明白什么内容更吸引人
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你可以登录squarespace.com开启免费试用
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通过squarespace.com/SCISHOW购买网址和域名能享受九折优惠
[♪ OUTRO]
[片尾音乐]

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视频概述

阑尾的弊和利,应该切除阑尾吗?《科学秀》给你答案。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J03A8BQCQC4

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