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你的骨头比你想象的要多

You Have More Bones Than You Think

Hi, this is David from MinuteEarth
嗨 这里是《分钟地球》 我是大卫
and I’ve got a bone to pick with anatomy textbooks.
对比解剖学课本 我们来“挑挑刺”
Almost all of them say that you have exactly 206 bones in your body:
几乎所有教科书都确定我们有206块骨头
28 in your skull,
颅骨28块
64 in your arms, 52 in your trunk, and 62 in your legs.
上肢骨64块 躯干骨52块 下肢骨62块
But those textbooks are way too sure of themselves.
但那些教科书似乎过于自信了
That’s not just because there are plenty of people born without legs
不仅是因为很多人天生没有下肢
or with extra fingers or whatever;
或者多根手指之类的
it’s also that these books fail to account for the “cartilage-to-bone spectrum”.
而且这些书并不能解释“软骨到骨的范围”
Our entire skeletons start out as cartilage.
出生时我们整个骨架都是软骨
As we grow, some of that cartilage gets surrounded by special cells
在生长过程中 一些软骨周围的细胞
that lay down a dense tissue full of calcium,turning it to bone.
形成富含钙的高密度组织 使软骨变成了硬骨
When we’re babies, only the very middle and the two ends of some of our bones have
婴儿时期 只有部分骨的中心和两端
have actually turned to bone.
发育成了硬骨
And since textbooks usually define individual bones as uninterrupted areas of calcium tissue,
而教科书将骨定义为连续的含钙组织区
they consider babies to have way more bones than adults.
所以它们认为婴儿比成人拥有更多的骨头
OK, so that’s a little weird.
好吧 有点奇怪
But what’s even weirder is that
更奇怪的是
textbooks aren’t consistent about the way they count bones
它们统计骨数的方法前后并不一致
Fused bones in certain regions of the body like our skulls
人体某些部位骨头 如颅骨的连结骨
seem to be more likely to get counted than others.
看起来比其他部位更容易统计
Our brain case, for example, gets fused together in sutures by the age of two
比如 两岁时我们的颅骨通过骨缝相连
as all that cartilage turns to bone.
所有的软骨就形成了硬骨
Despite that fusion, though, our textbooks still consider
虽然有连结 但是我们的教科书还是认为
our adult upper skulls to be 22 different bones!
成人的上颅骨是22块不同的骨头
Meanwhile, some of our somewhat useless tail bones fuses in a similar way
一些不太有用的尾骨也以相似方式连结
but our textbooks count it as only one bone.
但教科书却把它们当做一块骨头
This is even more ridiculous
而大多数人的尾骨
when you consider that most people’s tailbones aren’t actually totally fused in the first place.
最初并未真正完全连结 这样就更荒谬了
And those textbooks also fail to acknowledge that there are lots of places in our bodies where,
而教科书也没有提及 人体很多部位的骨头
for whatever reason,
不知何种原因
some people convert cartilage to bone while other people don’t.
有人软骨转换成硬骨 而有些人没有
30% of people have calcified at least one extra bean-sized bone behind their knees.
30%的人膝盖骨后方 至少多一块豆骨
20% of people have an extra bone as part of their little toe.
20%的人在小趾处多一块骨头
And 10 percent of us have an extra bone in our wrist.
10%的人手腕处多一块骨头
One guy was found to have made an extra 42
有个人发现自己多出了42块骨头
and he didn’t even know about it until he got x-rayed!
但在拍X光之前他自己都不知道
None of those bones are counted in the 206 we used to
这些都不在我们统计过的206块骨之列
even though we do count even tinier more “important” bones,
虽然我们把更小更“重要”的都统计了
like stapes in our middle ear.
比如中耳腔中的镫骨
If your body has decided to bone up or even bone down,
和标准206块相比
compared to the supposed 206 standard,
如果你的身体多或少几块骨头
you might not even know without getting a full body x-ray.
不拍个全身X光 你自己可能都不知道
But that spectrum does illustrate yet another bit of the incredible variation,
但那确实显示了人类种族骨骼的多样性
that exists in our species, diversity that extends all the way down to our bones.
变化多样 不可思议
And did you know that our bones do more than just make up our skeleton?
你知道吗 我们的骨头不仅用来构成骨架
They also send calcium to the heart so it can keep pumping away,
它们还给心脏提供钙来维持心脏功能
which you can learn about our brand-new show called Minute Body,
一切尽在我们的全新节目《分钟人体》
in which we take you a one-minute long tour
在这里只需要一分钟
about different body parts in every episode
你就可以了解更多关于身体的秘密
We just launched it on Nebula, a new streaming platform that
《分钟人体》已经在Nebula平台发布
we’re helping to build alongside with many of other favorite educational creators
这是我们和其他独立教育人共同创建的新流媒体平台
And the best way to get Nebula is to sign up for Curiositystream
登录Curiositystream 注册账号
which has tons of great streaming sides of science documentaries
这里有海量精彩科学纪录片
including my current favorite Ancient Earth
也有我最喜欢的《远古地球》
If you sign up for a free one month trial with CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/minute,
注册首月 可免费体验
you’ll get a Nebula subscription, including Minutebody, bundled in for free!
获取免费订阅 包括《分钟地球》哦!
So go to curiositystream.com/minute and get watching today
现在就登录开始观看吧

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视频概述

你知道吗?你的骨头,不一定是206块! 探索人体骨头的奥秘,一起来看看吧~

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

琥珀

审核员

审核员GURU

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wNswt6rIBG4

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