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你并没有你以为的那么了解自己 – 译学馆
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你并没有你以为的那么了解自己

You Don't Know Yourself as Well as You Think

[♪ INTRO]
[开场曲]
Odds are, you think you know yourself pretty well.
你可能认为你很了解你自己
So if I asked you a bunch of questions,
所以如果我问你一连串的问题
like if you’re generous,
比如你是否慷慨
or how good a driver you are
或者跟其他人相比
compared to other people,
你是否是一个好的司机
you would probably
你可能会用
have some confident answers for me.
很确定的答案来回答我
Except… I have some bad news.
除非…我有一些坏消息
According to research,
研究表明
your answers to many of these questions
你对于此类问题的很多回答
likely are not all that accurate.
似乎不是那么精准
Scientists have compared
科学家已经对比了
how people assess their abilities
人们对自身能力的评定
to how they objectively perform,
与他们的客观表现
and the two often do not line up.
这两者通常是不一致的
But if nothing else, there does seem to be a reason for this,
但如果没有其他因素干扰 对于这种现象似乎有一个解释
and a way people can get better.
和一个能使人们变得更好的方式
Much of the research in this field
关于此类问题的很多研究
centers around something
围绕着一种
called the Dunning-Kruger effect.
称为邓宁-克鲁格效应的东西
It’s usually described as a type of cognitive bias
它经常被描述为一种认知偏差
where unskilled people believe they are more competent,
水平较低者相信自己比实际上更有能力
more capable, and smarter than they really are.
更聪明
So in part, unskilled people
所以在某种程度上 水平较低者
are more likely to over-estimate their skill level,
更倾向于高估他们的能力
underestimate the skill level of those around them,
低估他们周围人的能力
and be unable to recognize expertise.
没有能力识别出专家
But it’s not just those with the least skill
但是误判自己能力的
who misjudge themselves.
不止是水平较低者
The highest performers also inaccurately
最高水平的人也会不准确地
rate their skillset, just in different ways.
评估自己的能力 只是方式不同
While they are generally good at self-assessment,
他们只有在这种情况下才擅长自我评价
like, they can pretty accurately tell you
比如 他们可以非常准确地告诉你
how many questions they got right on a quiz,
他们在测验上答对了多少题
they tend to think that they’re less skilled
他们倾向于认为他们相对于其他人
relative to others.
能力较弱
Though there is some nuance to this.
然而这个实验也有一定的偏差
In a 2014 meta-synthesis, for example,
比如 在2014年的一次综合集成中
researchers found that people’s self-evaluations
研究人员发现 人们的自我评价
were more likely to match others’ evaluations
在更具体 客观或熟悉的领域中
in more specific, objective, or familiar domains.
更容易符合他人的评价
For example, like, “the ability to shoot free throws”.
比如 “投罚球的能力”
Those evaluations tended to diverge
而当这些评价涉及更模糊的领域时
when it came to more vague areas,
则容易出现分歧
like “general athleticism”.
比如“综合运动能力”
Still, overall, those results
总的说来 这些结果
leave a lot of room for improvement.
仍有着大量的进步空间
One reason understanding yourself can be so difficult
了解自己如此困难的一个原因
depends on your actual level of skill.
取决于你的实际技能水平
As I mentioned earlier, part of the Dunning-Kruger effect
我之前提到过 邓宁-克鲁格效应的一部分
describes the way highly skilled people
描述了高能力人群
underestimate their abilities
低估其能力
and unskilled people overestimate them.
以及低能力人群高估其能力的方式
But those misjudgments don’t happen for the same reason.
但这两种误判的原因并不相同
Dunning and Kruger’s research shows that
邓宁与克鲁格的研究表明
highly-skilled people have a hard time
高技术人才很难
comparing themselves to others
将自己与他人比较
because they assume that since they know the information,
因为他们假定 因为他们了解了信息
everyone else must know it, too.
所以其他所有人一定也了解
Unskilled people, on the other hand,
而低技能人群
often don’t have the tools to judge their own skills,
则通常没有工具来评判自己的技能
so they think their ability is higher than it is
所以他们觉得自己的能力比实际要高
because they don’t know what the real skill entails.
因为他们不知道真正的技能需要什么
Like, I know nothing about flying an airplane,
就好比我不知道怎么开飞机
so I might look at a cockpit
所以我可能看看驾驶员座舱
and think it’s just like driving a car.
然后就觉得这和开汽车差不多
And since I know how to drive,
而因为我知道如何开车
I totally know how to fly a plane.
我就完全掌握了开飞机的知识
Which I do not!
但我并不会啊!
I don’t know how to fly a plane!
我不知道咋开飞机!
At least I know that.
至少我心里是有数的
Now, it might seem like the solution to this
现在对此的解决方案似乎
is just good old-fashioned feedback.
是老掉牙的反馈
But weirdly, that isn’t always true.
但奇怪的是 这并不一定管用
High performers are more likely to adjust their expectations
能力高者更容易根据反馈
of other people’s skill based on feedback.
调整对其他人技能的预期
But under-performers can be told
但效率低者在得知自己
how bad they are at something
非常不擅长某事之后
and still be overly optimistic
仍旧会对自己
about how well they’re gonna do the next time,
下一次的表现
as well as how they compared to others.
以及与他人的比较过度乐观
So, researchers have found a few ways to fix this tendency.
于是 研究人员找到了一些方法来调整这种倾向
For people who aren’t very good at something,
对那些不太擅长某事的人群来说
one way to improve self-assessment
一种提升自我评估的方法
is to get better at metacognitive skills,
是锻炼元认知技能
that is, thinking about thinking.
也就是“思考想法”
In Dunning and Kruger’s 1999 paper
邓宁和克鲁格在1999年发表的文章中
that launched the name for this effect,
首次提到了这个效应的名字
they tested the logic skills of 140 participants
他们测试了140名参与者的逻辑能力
and asked them to rate how well they thought they did.
并要求他们给自己的结果打分
Then, the researchers gave half of them
然后 研究人员给其中一半人
a logic training session.
上了一期逻辑培训课
Finally, they asked all of the participants
最后 他们让所有参与者
to rate how well they’d done
再次给自己在
on the original test, one more time.
第一次测试中的结果打分
Before the training, those who scored
训练前 那些分数
in the lowest percentiles
最低的参与者
overestimated their abilities
会一如往常地
more than anyone else in their experiment, as usual.
比其他人更容易高估自己在测试中的结果
But after the training,
但在训练后
they were as good at judging their own abilities
他们会像那些表现最好的参与者一样
as the highest performers were.
恰当评价自己的能力
Essentially, the researchers suggested that
实质上 研究人员表示
they’d gotten better at thinking
他们更擅长思考
about their own thought processes.
自己的思维过程了
And that helped them more accurately
这能帮他们更准确地
evaluate their own performance.
评估自己的表现
More broadly, other research has suggested
更广义地说 其他研究表明
that the way you think about intelligence
你看待智力的方式
may affect the accuracy of your self-assessments,
可能会影响你自我评估的准确性
at least for some things.
至少对某些事情如此
In a 2007 study, Joyce Ehrlinger,
在一项2007年的研究中
one of Dunning and Kruger’s colleagues,
邓宁和克鲁格的同事之一 Joyce Ehrlinger
gave participants various word problems
让参与者回答多个单词问题
and also asked them about their views on intelligence.
并提问了他们对智力的观点
Erhlinger found that those who considered intelligence
Erhlinger发现 那些认为智力是
a fixed skill, rather than one that could be improved,
一项固定技能 而不能被提升的人
were generally overconfident
往往会在对自己表现的
in self-assessments of their performance.
自我评估中过于自信
Research suggests that this happened
研究表明 这种情况的发生
because that group was more motivated to succeed,
是因为该组更有成功的动力
so they tended to better remember
于是他们更容易记住
the parts of the test that went well. And that makes sense.
做得好的那部分测试 这也讲得通
If you think your intelligence is an inherent, fixed thing,
如果你觉得你的智力是与生俱来的 固定的东西
it could be hard to wrestle with
你可能会很难面对
the implications of a low score.
低分的含义
Meanwhile, if you think you can learn
而如果你觉得可以通过学习
to be more intelligent,
变得更聪明的话
you might not be afraid to focus
你可能就不怕
on the easy and difficult parts of the test,
关注测试的难易
so your self-assessment might not be as biased.
所以你的自我评估不会有什么偏差
So in that sense,
所以在这层意义上
not being afraid to fail and make mistakes
不怕失败 不怕犯错
could help you have a more accurate view of your skills.
能帮你更准确地看待你的能力
Alternatively, there are some exercises you could try,
或者你也可以尝试一些练习
including one we are exploring with Vanessa from BrainCraft,
比如我们和BrainCraft的Vanessa一起探索的一个项目
which is a channel on YouTube
这是YouTube上的一个频道
if you don’t know, it’s amazing.
如果你不知道 可以看看 非常精彩
Please follow me over to her channel
请跟我去她的频道
so you can see how to increase your self-awareness
看看如何提高自我意识
and then you can subscribe if you like it.
然后如果你喜欢可以订阅
Thanks Hank! So this tool that Hank mentioned is called
谢谢Hank!他提到的这个工具叫作
the Johari window and it’s a really helpful way
乔哈里窗 非常有助于
to figure out what you believe about yourself
弄清楚你所认为的自己
versus how others see you
相较于别人眼中的你如何
So over on my channel BrainCraft,
所以在我的频道BrainCraft中
I’m gonna to try this out with Hank,
我将与Hank一起尝试
so please follow us over, and I’ll see you there!
请跟我们一起来 不见不散!
[♪ OUTRO]
[终曲]

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视频来源

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