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你就是你的微生物

You are your microbes - Jessica Green and Karen Guillemin

作为人类
Being human,
我们每个人都认为自己是独特和独立的个体
we each view ourselves as a unique and independent individual,
但我们从未孤独过!
but we’re never alone!
成千上万的微生物居住在我们的身体里
Millions of microscopic beings inhabit our bodies,
而且没有哪两个人体是一致的
and no two bodies are the same.
对于微生物群落来说,每个人的身体都是不同
Each is a different habitat for microbial communities:
从我们像干燥的荒漠的皮肤
from the arid deserts of our skin,
到我们嘴唇上的村落
to the villages on our lips,
以及我们嘴巴里的城市
and the cities in our mouths.
甚至每颗牙齿都是它们自己与众不同的邻居。
Even every tooth is its own distinctive neighborhood,
并且我们的内脏是微生物互相影响合作的中心
and our guts are teaming metropolises of interacting microbes.
在我们的内脏中这些活跃的地方
And in these bustling streets of our guts,
我们可以看到这些微生物的食物不停的流入
we see a constant influx of food,
并且每个微生物都有它们该做的事情
and every microbe has a job to do.
例如,这里有可加水分解纤维素的细菌
Here’s a cellulolytic bacteria, for example.
它们的其中一个工作就是打破纤维素
Their one job is to break down cellulose,
一种在蔬菜和糖类中普遍的混合物
a common compound in vegetables, into sugars.
这些糖沿着食道
Those simple sugars then move along to the respirators,
被另一组微生物抓起。
another set of microbes that snatch up
这些简单的糖类 就像燃料燃烧一样
these simple sugars and burn them as fuel.
经过我们的消化道。
As food travels through our digestive tract,
它到达的发酵罐中从这些糖中提取能量
it reaches the fermentors who extract energy from these sugars
将它们转化成化学物质。
by converting them into chemicals,
就像酒精和氢气。
like alcohol and hydrogen gas,
这一类他们的排放物。
which they spew out as waste products.
在我们肠道的更深处。
Deeper in the depths of our gut city,
互营菌依靠发酵罐里产生的垃圾来勉强为生。
the syntrophs eke out a living off the fermenters’ trash.
在这个过程的每一步中。
At each step of this process,
能量会被释放。
energy is released,
也会被吸收。
and that energy is absorbed
靠的是消化道中的细胞
by the cells of the digestive tract.
每个人在这个城市中都是不一样的。
This city we just saw is different in everyone.
每个人都有独特的微生物群体和多样化的系统。
Every person has a unique and diverse community of gut microbes
可以从不同的方式处理这些食物。
that can process food in different ways.
一个人的肠道微生物可能只能够
One person’s gut microbes may be capable
释放小部分的热量
of releasing only a fraction of the calories
另一个人的肠道微生物却可以提取能量
that another person’s gut microbes can extract.
所以,我们的肠道微生物群落的成员是由什么决定的?
So, what determines the membership of our gut microbial community?
好吧,就是我们的基因造成的
Well, things like our genetic makeup
在我们的生活遇到的微生物
and the microbes we encounter throughout our lives
可以有助于我们的微生物生态系统。
can contribute to our microbial ecosystems.
我们所吃的食物也会对其造成影响。
The food we eat also influences
在我们肠道生活的微生物。
which microbes live in our gut.
例如,由高分子组成的食物。
For example, food made of complex molecules,
就像一个苹果。
like an apple,
需要很多不同的微生物将它分解。
requires a lot of different microbial workers to break it down.
但是如果食物有很简单的分子构成的话。
But, if a food is made of simple molecules,
就像一个棒棒糖。
like a lollipop,
很多的微生物就并不需用工作。
some of these workers are put out of a job.
这些微生物离开了这个城市,再也不回来。
Those workers leave the city, never to return.
肠道微生物群落的功能不好
What doesn’t function well are gut microbial communities
几个类型的微生物在工作。
with only a few different types of workers.
例如,人类得了疾病。
For example, humans who suffer from diseases
就像,糖尿病。
like diabetes or chronic gut inflamation
通常在肠道微生物种类较少。
typically have less microbial variety in their guts.
我们不能找出的最佳途径
We don’t fully understand the best way
管理我们的个人微生物社会的最佳途径
to manage our individual microbial societies,
但很可能改变生活方式,
but it is likely that lifestyle changes,
比如说综合摄入营养丰富的植物性食物,
such as eating a varied diet of complex, plant-based foods,
可以促使我们肠道内的微生物生态系统富有活力
can help revitalize our microbial ecosystems in our gut
并使微生物到达我们身体的各个地方。
and across the entire landscape of our body.
所以说,在体内,我们并不是孤单地生存。
So, we are really not alone in our body.
我们的身体是无数个不同的微生物的栖居之地,
Our bodies are homes to millions of different microbes,
我们需要它们,正如它们需要我们。
and we need them just as much as they need us.
当我们了解了更多如何让微生物与微生物之间,
As we learn more about how our microbes
微生物与我们身体之间相互影响,
interact with each other and with our bodies,
我们将进一步地揭示了我们该如何养育
we will reveal how we can nurture
这个复杂的,看不见的
this complex, invisible world
塑造我们人格的
that shapes our personal identity,
我们健康的
our health,
以及我们幸福的的世界。
and our well-being.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1X8p0vhsWRE

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