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你基本上就是个微生...了解你的微生物!

You Are Mainly Microbe… Meet Your Microbiome!

人类常常为清洁所困扰
We humans are obsessed with cleanliness.
当感冒来袭时我们会戴上口罩 我们每天用香香的肥皂来清洁身体
We wear masks in public when we feel cold coming on,we cover ourselves in scented soaps,
而且对我们手的消毒简直到了疯狂的程度
and we are crazy about our hand sanitizer.
但是无论我们怎么样烘干、 消毒、 清洁 我们的内环境里仍然充满了小生命(つд⊂)
But no matter how much we steam, sterilize or scrub ourselves,we still outnumbered by our inner ecosystem.
看看你的微生物
Meet your “macrobio”.
平均一个成年人由十万亿个细胞组成
The average adult human is made up of about ten trillion cells,
但每一个人携带数量的细菌数量是多少 十亿还是万亿
but how many bacteria do you think he carry? A billion?A trillion?
在我们的皮肤 头发 嘴巴 和我们的内脏里面大约有100万亿的微生物
How about a hundred trillion microbes on our skin,hair,mouth and inside our intestines?
你、我、 以及任何一个地球人身上都有一大堆的微生物
You and I and everyone on Earth is mainly microbe.
但我们出生的时候可不是这样的
We’re not born that way.
我们在无菌的子宫内发育 然后我们出生之前 我们就会接触到第一批小细菌
We start out in a sterile womb, we get our first dose of bacteria before we even done being born.
在我们接触阴道的时候 我们吞下了一丢丢这家伙:
As we pass through the vaginal cavity,we ingest a tiny bit of this guy:
它生活在我们的肠道中 而在我们喝母乳的时候肠道中会夹杂着600个其他微生物
It lives in our intestines,where it’ll join about 600 other species that come along with our mothers’ breast milk.
他们的工作是什么呢
Their job?
为了溶解母乳中我们无法自我消化的糖类
To break down sugars in that milk we couldn’t digest on our own.
我们拥抱 亲嘴嘴 玩泥巴的过程中最终会有1000种细菌
As we cuddle and kiss and play in the dirt, eventually over a thousand species bacteria
将会在我们的内脏中安家
will call our guts home.
起初我们的小虎斑开始抵御坏细菌病并让我们的免疫系统学会辨别好与坏的细菌
Early on our little friends start fighting off bad bacteria and help teach our immune system the difference between good and bad.
不带微生物的小鼠比成人还弱
Mice without a macrobio are much sicker as adults.
如果孩子注射过多的抗生素 反而会导致杀灭有害菌的同时也杀灭他们体内的有益菌
and children who take too many antibiotics, which cause good bacteria along with bad
这让他们在之后的生活中更容易感染哮喘和肠道类疾病
can be more likely to get asthma and intestinal later in life.
这些细菌不仅能保护我们-还能供给养分
These bacteria don’t just protect us–they help feed us.
维生素B3,B6,B12还有钾都是在微生物作用下生成再被人体吸收
Vitamins like B3, B6, B12, and K are all produced by our microbial friends and taken up by our bodies.
我们体内的微生物不仅在内脏中哦
Our microbiome goes way beyond our guts.
列文虎克是第一位在1683年曾经在显微镜下看到了我们的微生物朋友的人
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek became the first person to ever lay eyes on our little friend in1683
他把牙齿上的刮擦物放在显微镜下观看
when he scraped his teeth and placed them under a microscope.
即使在我们刷牙后,也有上百种生活在口腔中的微生物在帮我们消灭疾病和牙蛀牙
Even after we brush our teeth, hundreds of species live in our mouth fighting diseases and tooth decay.
没有一个人口腔内的细菌完全一样 在你接吻的时候也会把微生物传到别人的嘴里
And no two people have exactly the same mouth bacteria, you share your mix with everyone you kiss.
我们过去认为无菌的肺才健康但是肺里也有微生物
We used to think that sterile lungs were healthy,but there’s bacteria there, too,
他们帮我们抵御哮喘和肺部感染
helping prevent asthma and lung infections.
我们甚至在耳朵和动脉里也能发现它们 而且还在鼻子里为我们制造抗生素
We’ve even found them in ears and arteries, and manufacturing antibiotics in our noses.
而且 包括我们最大的器官:皮肤
And then there’s our largest organ: the skin.
大约一万亿细菌生活在我们的头发淋巴结和上表皮中
About a trillion bacteria live on our hair and epidermis.
有一些具有防护作用 让我们的皮肤显弱酸性或者用些化学物质来防止真菌在我们身上开party
Some are playing defense, making our skin slightly acidic or using chemicals to keep fungi from setting up shop.
一些皮肤上的真菌更喜欢生活在我们身体上温暖、黑暗的地方并吞食皮肤上的油
Some skin bacteria prefer to live warm, dark places on our bodies munching on our skin oils
和汗水并产生化学物质 让我们闻起来有一种特别的“香味”(狐臭……)
and sweat and producing chemicals that give us our particular . . . “aroma”.
还有大量我们不摸不着头绪的奇异微生物原理
There’s a lot of weird macrobio science that we don’t understand.
不论年龄、饮食习惯、性别或者籍贯,
Regardless of your age, diet, gender, or where you’re from
你也可能只有一个肠胃系统 虽然总共有3个
you probably have just one of three ecosystems.
对于血型来说,我们的消化细菌群也只有一种
Like blood types,we all share only a handful of gut macrobio types across all people.
你听说过细菌精神控制论吗
Have you heard of bacterial mind control?
迷走神经像电话线一样连着我们的内脏和大脑
The vagus nerve serves as a sort of direct phone line from the gut to your brain
肠子里有病菌的小老鼠会比其他老鼠更加淡定而且不那么急躁
and mice that have certain bacteria in their intestines are calmer and less anxious than those who don’t.
这里还有另一个奇怪的微生物谜团 如果你观察你右手上的细菌种类
Here’s another weird microbe mystery: If you looked at all bacteria on your right hand,
只有其中五分之一种会在你的左手上
only about 1/5 of them would also live on left hand.
即使你这么做【 用力的搓手】
Even if you do this! [rubs hands together vigorously]
总之我们携带有大约两万种或更多的人类基因和大约三百万种细菌基因
All in all, we carry about 20,000 or so human genes and three million are so bacterial genes.
某种意义上来讲 我们只有1%是人类99%是细菌
In a sense, we’re 1% human in 99% bacterial.
当然啦 有些细菌是有害的 但是大多数都很愿意在我们身体里扎窝
Sure, some bacteria are bad, but most of them are just happy to call us home,
并且乐于帮我们保持健康
and happy to help us healthy.
如果我们不把我们体内的微生物当朋友对待 他们就会冲上去干掉我们
If we don’t start treating our microbiomes like friends they are,they might rise up against us.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4BZME8H7-KU

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