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你会养育杀死你孩子的寄孵鸟吗?

Would you raise the bird that murdered your children? - Steve Rothstein

This is a little bee-eater’s nest.
这是小蜂虎鸟的巢
But this is not a little bee-eater chick.
但这并不是小蜂虎鸟的雏鸟
It’s a newly hatched honeyguide— and it’s much more lethal.
这是一只刚孵出的向蜜鸟 它特别危险
When its mother placed it here, she punctured all the other eggs in the nest.
母亲把它放在宿主的巢里 她会用嘴把宿主的蛋都戳破
However, one little bee-eater chick survived the attack and is now hatching.
然而 有一只小蜂虎鸟雏鸟幸存下来 现在正破壳而出
Although the honeyguide nestling is still completely blind,
尽管巢里的向蜜鸟雏鸟现在什么都看不见
it instinctively stabs the little bee-eater chick
它还是本能地用锋利的钩状嘴
with its sharp, hooked beak.
去戳小蜂虎鸟雏鸟
And over the following weeks,
在接下来的几周里
the host parents devotedly care for the hatchling
宿主父母全心全意地照顾着刚孵化出的
that murdered their offspring.
杀了它们后代的向蜜鸟雏鸟
This is but one example of brood parasitism,
这只是巢寄生的一个例子
an evolutionary strategy in which one animal tricks another i
巢寄生是一种动物欺骗另一种动物来抚养
nto rearing its young.
它的后代的一种进化方式
It’s especially well-known among birds.
这在鸟类世界里更是众所周知的
By depositing their eggs into a stranger’s nest,
寄孵鸟通过把自己的卵产在宿主的巢里
brood parasites are able to shift the major costs of parenting onto others.
能把大部分的养育成本转移给宿主
Brood parasite chicks usually hatch early,
寄孵鸟的雏鸟通常会更早地孵出
then monopolize their host parents’ attention.
来独占宿主父母的注意力
Some stab their fellow nestlings to death,
有些会把安顿下来的同巢雏鸟刺死
while others shove the remaining occupants out of the nest.
另一些则把剩下的同巢雏鸟挤出巢穴
Meanwhile, others are less harmful to their hosts.
同时 也有一些寄孵鸟对宿主的危害较小
Not all brood parasites kill all of their host’s offspring outright.
并不是所有的寄孵鸟都会把宿主的后代全部杀死
Brown-headed Cowbirds usually outcompete them
褐头牛鹂通常用比宿主后代更大的声音去乞求食物
by begging for food louder, more frequently, and with a wider mouth.
用更大的嘴巴吃食物来超越宿主后代
Among the most benign,
其中最温和的当属黑头鸭
black-headed ducks lay their eggs in other nests to be incubated.
它们把蛋产在其他鸭类的巢内让它们来孵化
However, a few hours after hatching, they simply saunter off.
然而 在孵化后的几个小时 它们只是悠闲地离开了
But in the most egregious cases of brood parasitism,
但在极坏的巢寄生情况中
why don’t host parents take a stand?
为什么宿主父母没有采取措施
In fact, hosts will often drive adult brood parasites away from their nests,
事实上 宿主经常将成年的寄孵鸟驱逐出他们的巢穴
and many take their defenses further.
也有很多宿主采取了更多防御措施
But whether a hosts can recognize and reject parasitic eggs and nestlings
宿主是否能辨别和赶出未离巢的寄生蛋
seems to depend on a few factors.
取决于一些因素
Eastern phoebes will accept a Brown-headed
东菲比霸鹟的蛋本应是纯白色的
Cowbird’s speckled egg into their nest,
而寄孵的褐头牛鹂的蛋顶部有斑点
though theirs are pure white.
但宿主看到有斑点的蛋也接受了
The gray catbird, on the other hand,
相反 哪怕两种蛋长得特别像
is an expert at rooting out the very same parasites.
灰嘲鸫也可以彻底地防范寄孵
It memorizes what the first egg in its nest looks like,
因为它能记住原先巢里蛋的样子
which is usually its own, and tosses any aberrations.
知道哪个是自己的蛋 并把异类扔出巢外
This retaliatory adaptation can fuel an evolutionary arms race
报复性的应对能力会引起一场关于进化的激烈竞赛
where brood parasites evolve eggs that closely mimic their host’s.
寄主蛋会模仿宿主蛋的样子进化
Interestingly, birds that do reject parasitic eggs
有趣的是 能辨别和拒绝寄主蛋的鸟类
are usually clueless when it comes to parasitic chicks.
通常是辨别不出寄主的雏鸟的
Reed warblers are good at ejecting poorly matching cuckoo eggs.
东方大苇莺能逐出外形不同的布谷鸟蛋
But if one hatches in their nest,
但如果有个布谷鸟蛋顺利孵化
they’ll care for it even after it’s grown six times their size.
即使布谷鸟长得比它们大6倍 它们也会悉心照顾
Though chick rejection is a rarer phenomenon,
尽管排斥雏鸟是稀有的现象
there are some noteworthy examples.
还是有一些值得注意的例子
While incubating its eggs, the Australian superb fairy-wren sings to them,
澳大利亚的壮丽细尾鹩在孵化蛋时会对它们唱歌
imparting a unique note that its chicks use as a kind of password.
发出独特的信号 雏鸟可以把此当作密码
When a cuckoo is in the wren’s nest, it hatches first and pushes the others out.
布谷鸟在壮丽细尾鹩莺的巢里下的蛋会比别的蛋先孵化 并赶走其他的蛋
But, perhaps because it hatched sooner,
但可能是因为布谷鸟的蛋孵化的更快
the cuckoo chick wasn’t able to learn the password,
布谷鸟雏鸟听不懂这些歌唱信号
and so it doesn’t croon the right begging call.
因此不能发出正确的求食信号
At this point, the adults usually abandon their nest and start another.
这时 成年鸟通常会放弃它们的巢并另找一个
Altogether, host species show a remarkable variety of responses.
总的来说 宿主对巢寄生有大量不同的应对方法
This seems to partially be a result of how long
这可能是由于在它们所处的环境里
brood parasitism has been in their environment,
巢寄生现象存在的时间长短不同
and thus how much time they’ve had to evolve suitable adaptations.
因此进化出侦察寄主的能力所需的时间也不同
In fact, studies have shown that those hosts that reject parasitic eggs
事实上 研究显示那些拒绝寄生蛋的宿主
less frequently can visually distinguish between their eggs and a brood parasite’s.
不太能从视觉上分辨自己和寄孵鸟的蛋
They simply lack a response to the visual information.
它们缺乏对视觉信息的反应
This is probably because, before brood parasitism appeared,
这可能是因为 在巢寄生现象出现前
responding would have likely had no adaptive value.
对此做出反应是没有意义的
And even when hosts do recognise a parasite,
甚至就算宿主分辨出了寄孵鸟
getting rid of it may not be the best option.
摆脱它也未必是最好的选择
The host, especially if it’s small, might not be able to kill the parasite—
尤其是当宿主体型较小的时候 可能没有能力杀死寄主
or could risk breaking its own eggs in the process.
在这过程中还可能有戳破自己的卵的风险
Unless the brood parasite kills all of the host’s young,
除非寄孵鸟杀死了所有宿主的后代
it may be best to simply foster the imposter.
否则对它们来说最好的办法就是收养这个寄孵者
Brood parasitism tends to evoke horror and disdain.
巢寄生现象会引起恐惧和蔑视
But why should it be thought of as any more objectionable
但为什么有些人会认为
than predator-prey relationships?
它比捕食关系更令人反感呢?
And is it ever productive to impose human morals onto other animals?
把人类的道德观强加给其它动物有用吗?
Or does it end up saying more about us than it does them?
是不是反映的更多的是我们人类的看法呢?
Whichever way you swing it,
不论你支持哪种观点
brood parasitism is yet another example of the fascinating turns evolution has taken.
巢寄生依然是进化过程中一个有趣的变化

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视频概述

本视频主要讲的是巢寄生这种特殊的繁殖行为

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAPPT7gcl5s

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