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人类史上最残忍的酷刑 – 译学馆
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人类史上最残忍的酷刑

Worst Punishments In The History of Mankind

法国哲学家米歇尔·傅科的书《纪律与惩罚: 监狱的起源》
French Philosopher Michel Foucault startshis book “Discipline and Punish: The Birth
以一个章节开始
of the Prison,
这个章节是关于一个不幸的法国人
” with a chapter about an unfortunate Frenchman named Robert-François
罗伯特·佛朗索瓦·达米安
Damiens.
达米安刺杀国王路易十五失败
Damiens had tried and failed to assassinate King Louis XV,
因此他被处以极刑
and for it he was severely punished.
用熔化的蜡和铅灼烧他的身体
He was burned with molten wax and lead,
并将煮沸的油倾倒在他裸露的伤口处
and had boiling oil poured into his open wounds.
接着他被四马分尸
He was then “ quartered ” by horses pulling
躯干绑在柱子上
at his limbs and then his torso was burned
施以火刑
at the stake.
人群中有一些欢呼声 但是一个评论员写道
Some of the crowd cheered, but one commentator wrote,
“有几次我不得不转过我的头
“ I was several times obliged to turn
捂住我的耳朵
away my face and to stop my ears
因为我听到他的厉声尖叫 他身体的一半
as I heard his piercing shrieks, half of his body having
已经被撕裂开来”
been torn from him.”
极刑在逐渐改变
Things slowly changed regarding the harshness of punishments,
但是现在在图形信息秀《人类历史上最坏的刑罚》这一章节中
but today we ’ ll look back
我们回顾一下
in this episode of the Infographics Show, The Worst Punishments in
那残酷的过去
the History of Mankind.
我们应该说明 这个清单没有根据污秽程度有特别的顺序
We should explain that this list is in no particular order
因为你会看到
所有这些被计量的刑罚都是野蛮的n倍
that all these punishments metered out are barbaric to the nth degree.
很难说哪个是最坏的
It would be hard to say which is the worst,
因为它们都非常地可怕
as they are all incredibly horrific.
我们会让你们来决定哪种惩罚是你们所认为最可憎的
We ’ ll let you decide which punishment you think is the most heinous.
我们也得补充说 你们之中的一些人可能会认为
We will also add that some of you might believe
长时间的折磨 比如单独监禁
that prolonged agony, such as solitary confinement
二十年 可能实际上
for 20 years, might actually be worse
比起持续几秒钟的酷刑的疼痛
than excruciating pain that lasts a few seconds
或者(比起)是死前的几分钟更糟糕
or minutes before death.
但是我们今天更多地关注野蛮的行为
But we’ll focus more on barbaric acts today.
拷问台我们以一种你们都
The RackWe’ll start with one punishment you have
可能听说过的刑罚开始
all probably heard of.
拷问台是一种非常简单的装置
The rack was a fairly simple device,
由一个矩形框架和一些杠杆
consisting of a rectangular frame and a series of levers, pullies,
还有绳子组成
and ropes.
从古代到中世纪欧洲 拷问台有不同的样式
There are different versions of the rack dating from antiquity to Middle Ages Europe.
惩罚方式是拉伸犯人的关节
The idea was to stretch the prisoner by the joints
直到肌肉被撕裂
until the muscles were torn and the
关节爆开
joints popped.
最终所有的关节都会脱臼
Eventually all the joints would be dislocated. Hanged,
绞刑 拉拔和分尸
drawn and quartered This
这和发生在达米安身上的刑罚相似
is close to what happened to Damiens,
但是更为著名的是 作为一种非常可怕的执行方式
but was better known as a very gruesome form
在中世纪英格兰
of execution in Middle Ages England when someone
当有人犯了叛国罪
had committed high treason (aka treason againstthe state).
犯人会被吊起来直到快要死亡
The prisoner would be hanged until almostdead.
接着他会被放下来 当他还活着的时候取出内脏
Then he would be taken down and disemboweled while still alive,
同样地 他的男性象征(某器官)
and also have his manhood
也会切下
cut from his body.
接着他会被剁成碎片
He would then be chopped into pieces,
通常他的头会被切下来
and often his head was chopped off and hung some
悬挂在公众能看见的地方
place where the public could see it.
英格兰在1870年废除了这项刑罚
This punishment was abolished in England in1870.
犹大椅 也被称为丹尼椅或者犹大摇篮
Judas ChairAlso known as Danni’s Chair or Judas Cradle,
它不是在使用时为人所知
it ’ s not known exactly when this was used,
但是有关于它的草图
but there are sketches of it in existence
椅子也在一些博物馆进行展览
and it also is on display in some museums.
这个可怕的装置是一把
This gruesome device was a chair
在座位上有着尖利的锥形的椅子
with a sharp pointed pyramid shape on the seat of the chair.
关于中世纪历史的网页告诉我们
Websites writing about medieval history tell
犯人会被放坐在这个长钉的上方
us people would be sat atop this spike and
通过绳子被逐渐降低 当长钉刺入他时是极度疼痛的
lowered by ropes, which was extremely painful as it entered the orifice.
但是有时通过重物的使用
But sometimes they would be dragged down on it
会使他们拖拽向长钉 同时
with the use of weights while application
油的使用会使得情况更糟糕
of oil would make things worse.
当犯人被进一步放低 会慢慢地死掉
They would die slowly as they were further lowered,
或者因感染而慢慢死去
or perhaps die even more slowly from infection.
根据已知的两种来源 这样的刑罚会持续数小时或者数天
This could take hours or days, according to two sources we found.
一些资料显示这种刑罚在西班牙宗教法庭中所使用
Some sources say it was used during the Spanish Inquisition,
而另一些则否定该观点
but other sources refute that.
沸水煮活人再一次 我们转向英格兰
BoilingAgain, we turn to England and this time to
这一次是16世纪
the 1500s.
据说易怒的国王亨利八世
It ’ s said the often-irascible King Henry
使这项刑罚变成了死刑的一种
VIII made this a form of capital punishment,
但是看起来此刑罚也曾
but it seems to also have been popular
在这一时期某时候风靡欧洲和亚洲
at some point in time all around Europe and Asia.
正如你猜想的
As you can guess,
这种折磨以及最终的死亡是
the torture and usually the eventual death was a result of someone
活着的犯人在装满水 油或者沥青的大锅或者大壶中
being boiled alive in a large cauldron or kettle full
被烹煮的结果
of water, oil or tar.
凯瑟琳转轮也被称之为死亡之轮
The Catherine WheelAlso known as the Breaking Wheel, it’s thought
这种简单的摧毁身体的方法
this simple method
主要于18和19世纪
of bodily destruction was used mainly in the 18th and 19th centuries
用在欧洲和亚洲一些地方
in Europe and parts of Asia.
法国作家伏尔泰在18世纪出版的一本书中
The French writer Voltaire writes about the punishment
写到这种刑罚
in a book published in the 18th
犯人被平展地绑在一个大的木质转轮上
Prisoners were tied and splayed on a largewooden wheel.
刽子手会用重物
The executioner would then take a heavy object,
有时是铁棍子 猛打在轮子上的犯人
sometimes an iron cudgel, and break the person
直到犯人的身体几乎都变成碎片
on the wheel until the body was completelyalmost in pieces. Sometimes,
然而有时候 几天之后
however, it would take a few days
受害者才会由于伤处死亡
for the victims to die from their injuries.
碎头刑这应该是不言自明的
The Head CrusherThis should be self-explanatory.
想象一个金属盘子被绑在你的头骨上
Imagine a metal dish strapped to your skull,
一个金属碟子在你的下巴下
and a metal plate under your chin.
你不能移动 因为它被牢牢固定住
You can’t move as it is all secured.
盘子会通过一个可以转动的大个螺丝钉而降低
The dish can be lowered using a large screw that can be turned.
当它降低时 会打碎你头上的骨头
As it lowers, it breaks the bones
最终压碎整个头骨
in your head and eventually crushes the skull.
我们找不到大量的资料 来告诉我们什么时候应用的这种刑罚
We can ’ t find too many reliable sources telling us when this was used,
但是同样地
but again it ’ s
它被认为是中世纪的精巧装置
thought it was a contraption of the MiddleAges.
History.co.uk告诉我们这是真实存在的事情
History.co.uk tells us it was a real thing,
它也在一本书中出现 这本书叫做
and it appears in a book called “ The Big
《历史上的酷刑大全》
Book of Pain: Torture & Punishment throughHistory.”
剥皮如果你曾看过《权利的游戏》
FlayingIf you’ve seen Game of Thrones you’ll
你会对这个刑罚很熟悉
be familiar with this punishment.
这种酷刑包括 剥下一个人所有的皮肤
The torture comprises of cutting off all of a person ’ s skin,
尽管据说
although it ’ s said in
在中国有时只是剥下面部的皮肤
China sometimes it was just the facial skin.
有时犯人会先被烫伤
Sometimes the person may have been burned first
以使剥皮变得更容易 或者只是
to make the cutting easier, or just
为了增添更多污秽
perhaps to add more nastiness.
直到18世纪这种刑罚仍旧存在
It was around as late
米歇尔·傅科在我们提到过的书《纪律与刑罚》中
as the 18th century and Michel Foucault discusses it in gory detail
以血淋淋的细节讨论了这个问题
in the book we mentioned, Discipline and Punish.
据说在十三世纪 英国人对小偷处以这种刑罚
It ’ s said the English did it to thieves
但是这样的惩罚发生在
in the 13th century, but such punishment happened
全世界的历史中
all over the world throughout the ages.
据说在1357年 中国皇帝洪武(朱元璋)下令对5000个妇女处以剥皮之刑
that the Chinese Emperor Hongwu ordered the flaying of 5,000 women in 1357,
尽管一本叫做《皮与骨》的书将这一日期放在1396年
although a book called “ Skin and Bones ” puts the date at 1396.
千刀之死
Death by a Thousand Cuts Sticking
在相似时期的中国
with China and a similar period,
产生了这种残忍的刑罚
comes this brutal torture.
也被称为 凌迟
Also known as Lingchi,
一本叫做《千刀之死》的书认为在14世纪的中国
a book called “ Death by a Thousand Cuts ” says it was a common
这是一种普遍的刑罚
form of punishment in China in the 14th century,
但是(凌迟)在这个国家存在了许多个世纪
but was around in the country for many centuries.
犯人的整个身体会被切片
The prisoner ’ s entire body would be sliced,
但是需要很长时间犯人才会死亡
but it would take a long time to die, as you
因为切片都是很小的
would expect from small slices.
但是没有多余的刀数
But nothing was spared
最后将会使这个不幸的受害者死亡
from the knife and eventually this would kill the unfortunate
然而 当这种刑罚
while this form
在中国之外变得臭名昭著 一些历史学家
of punishment became infamous outside of China, some historians
告诉我们凌迟没有
tell us that it wasn ’ t as prolonged
像某些人曾经说过的那样持续很久 而且
as some people originally said, and that some of those
一些切割实际上意味着肢解 这使得死亡来得更快
cuts actually meant dismemberment – makingdeath arrive faster.
锯刑看着15世纪关于这项刑罚的草图
SawingLooking at sketches of this from the 15th century,
在某些方面 锯刑是最野蛮的
it is in some ways the most barbaric,
因为它很基本
as it ’ s so basic.
犯人被倒挂在绞刑架上
A person is hanged upside down from some gallows
他的腿形成一个V形
with their legs forming a V-shape.
接着两个人会用一个大锯子
Two men would then take a large saw
从犯人的腹股沟处把他切成两半
and cut the man in half from his groin area.
很明显犯人经受刑罚的大半还能活着
He would apparently live through much of this.
据我们找到的资料中显示
According to one source we can find,
“这种刑罚只在中世纪欧洲偶尔使用
“ This was only infrequently used in medieval Europe
在中国 用腰斩作为替代”
and in China where sawing horizontally through the middle was an alternative. ”
在网上浏览
Looking around the web,
在许多个世纪 锯刑在全世界有各种形式
sawing took all kinds of forms all over the world during many centuries.
在任何情况下 犯人被锯开
In any case, people were sawed apart,
但是方法可能是多种形式的
but the method may have taken many forms.
老鼠你现在可能会这样想
RatsYou might be thinking right now: what on Earth
到底过去的人怎么了 为什么会制定或者支持这样的行为呢
was wrong with people in the past that enacted or even endorsed such behavior?
因为人类对疼痛如此了解 难道我们没有被美德所祝福么
Because humans understand pain so well, werewe not blessed with a priori (built-in) morality?
如果你没有思考过这个
If you haven ’ t already thought that,
也许你马上会了 因为老鼠导致的死亡
perhaps you will in a second as death by rats really
就像吃饼干一样
takes the biscuit.
显而易见 这项刑罚用于中世纪欧洲和中国
It was apparently used in Medieval Europeand China.
一些资料告诉我们 把饥饿的老鼠放在
Some sources tell us that starved rats are poured
一个关押赤裸犯人的盒子里
into a box with a naked prisoner, and
它们会慢慢地吃掉这个人
they slowly eat the person.
另外一些资料认为
Other sources say the belly
犯人的肚子首先被部分打开 因此老鼠可以
of the person is first partially opened so the rats can
进入到(肚子)里面
get at the insides.
这些被记录在一本1931年的书
It’s written about in a 1931 book called“Merrily I Go to Hell: Reminiscences of
《愉快地走向地狱:一个主教女儿的回忆录》中
a Bishop’s Daughter.”
另一本叫做《酷刑词典》的书告诉我们
Another book called “ The Dictionary of Torture ” tells us
这项刑罚发生在德国
that this happened in Germany.
但是另一本书告诉我们
Yet another book tells us
在中国 老鼠会被关在受害者肚子上的
that in China the rat would be trapped on a victim ’ s stomach
一个金属罐子下面
under a metal pot.
罐子会加热
The pot would be heated
直到老鼠没有别的选择 只有试着咬出一条路
until the rat had no other choice than to try and gnaw its way
从犯人的身体里穿过
through the person’s body.
我们不能说这样子的结果会是什么
We can ’ t say what the outcome of this would be,
也许这不是可信的
and perhaps it ’ s not so plausible that
一只老鼠可以在身体里咬出一条路
a rat could eat its way through a body.
一些资料显示这就是事实
Some of the sources that say that was
却不能提供它发生的证据
the case don ’ t offer evidence of it happening
因此这就是关于人类残暴的一段简短历史
there’s a short history of some humanbarbarity.
让我们为已经从那些时代进化过来而感到高兴
Let’s be glad we have evolved somewhat sincethose times.
你可以想到一个我们没有在这里提到的可憎的刑罚吗
Can you think of a heinous punishment that we didn ’ t mention here?
在评论里让我们知道吧
Let us know in the comments! Also,
同样记得
be sure to check
观看我们另一个叫做《在人类身上实施的最可怕的监狱实验》的视频
out our other video called Worst Prison Experiments Conducted
感谢您的观看 同时
Thanks for watching, and,
一如往常 不要忘记点喜欢 分享 和订阅
as always, don ’ t forget to like, share, and subscribe.
下次再见
See you next time!

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视频概述

视频介绍了人类历史上存在过的几种残酷的刑罚,例如五马分尸,沸水煮活人,凌迟等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

木瓜瓜

审核员

审核员A

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ew1edqVqCu0

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