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认识虫洞——时间的线索 – 译学馆
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认识虫洞——时间的线索

Wormholes Explained – Breaking Spacetime

如果你在现实中看到虫洞 它通常呈圆球状
If you saw a wormhole in reality, it would appear round, spherical,
有点儿像一个黑洞
a bit like a black hole.
另一侧的光线通过虫洞
Light from the other side passes
让你看到远方的景象
through and gives you a window to a faraway place.
一旦穿过虫洞 另一侧的景色映入眼帘
Once crossed, the other side comes fully into view
你原来的家在闪耀的球形窗(虫洞)中远去
with your old home now receding into that shimmering spherical window.
然而虫洞是否存在
But are wormholes real,
抑或只是伪装成物理和数学的魔术?
or are they just magic disguised as physics and maths?
如果虫洞真的存在
If they are real,
它们是如何运作? 我们在哪里能够找到它们?
how do they work and where can we find them?
在人类很长的历史中
For most of human history,
我们认为空间是十分简单的
we thought space was pretty simple;
它就像一个巨大平坦的舞台 宇宙中一切事情都发生在舞台上面
a big flat stage where the events of the universe unfold.
除去行星与恒星外
Even if you take down the set of planets and stars,
还有一些东西存在
there’s still something left.
这个空旷的舞台就是空间
That empty stage is space and it exists,
空间是永恒不变的存在
unchanging and eternal.
爱因斯坦的相对论改变了这一观点
Einstein’s theory of relativity changed that.
相对论认为空间与时间共同组成了这个舞台
It says that space and time make up that stage together,
而且时间和空间并不都是处处相同的
and they aren’t the same everywhere.
舞台上的事物能影响舞台本身
The things on the stage can affect the stage itself,
拉伸或扭曲着舞台
stretching and warping it.
如果说以前的空间是静止的硬木板
If the old stage was like unmoving hardwood,
爱因斯坦的时空更像是一张水床
Einstein’s stage is more like a waterbed.
这种有弹性的空间可以弯曲甚至撕扯到一起
This kind of elastic space can be bent and maybe even torn and patched together,
这样就有可能产生虫洞
which could make wormholes possible.
让我们看看时空在二维情况下是什么样的
Let’s see what that would look like in 2D.
我们的宇宙像是巨大的平板
Our universe is like a big flat sheet,
以刚好的方式弯曲
bent in just the right way,
虫洞就像一座桥
wormholes could connect two very,
连接距离很遥远的两个地方
very distant spots with a short bridge
使得你能在几乎一瞬间通过
that you could cross almost instantaneously.
并在宇宙中实现超光速旅行
Enabling you to travel the universe even faster than the speed of light. So,
所以 我们在哪里能够找到虫洞
where can we find a wormhole?
现在 只能在纸上
Presently, only on paper.
广义相对论预言虫洞可能存在
General relativity says they might be possible,
但并不意味它们一定存在
but that doesn’t mean they have to exist.
广义相对论是一种数学上的理论
General relativity is a mathematical theory.
它是一组有着多解的方程组
It’s a set of equations that have many possible answers,
但不是所有解都是对现实的描述
but not all maths describes reality.
但所有解理论上的都是可能的 并且有很多种
But they are theoretically possible and there are different kinds.
爱因斯坦—罗森 桥
EINSTEIN ROSEN BRIDGES
第一类理论虫洞是爱因斯坦—罗森 桥
The first kind of wormholes to be theorized were Einstein Rosen Bridges.
他们将黑洞描述为一种
They describe every black hole as a sort
通往无数平行宇宙的入口
of portal to an infinite parallel universe.
让我们再以二维视角来审视
Let’s try to picture them in 2D again.
空的时空是平坦的 但有物质时会发生弯曲
Empty space time is flat, but curved by objects on it.
如果我们压缩这个物质 它周围的时空会愈加弯曲
If we compress that object, space-time gets more curved around it.
最终 时空变得过于弯曲
Eventually, space-time becomes so warped
最后坍塌为黑洞
that it has no choice but to collapse into a black hole.
同时形成了一种单向边界――事件视界 所有东西在其中都只进不出
A one-way barrier forms: the event horizon, which anything can enter but nothing can escape;
将永远困在位于其核心的奇点
trapped forever at the singularity at its core.
也可能核心并没有奇点
But maybe there is no singularity here.
可能在视界的另一边
One possibility is that the other side
是和我们的宇宙一样的世界
of the event horizon looks a bit like our universe again
只是镜像颠倒 时间逆流
but mirrored upside down, where time runs backwards.
在我们的宇宙 事物落入黑洞
In our universe things fall into the black hole.
在平行宇宙 随着时间逆流
In the parallel universe, with backwards time,
镜像的黑洞像宇宙大爆炸一样喷吐物质
the mirror black hole is spewing things out a bit like a big bang.
它被称作白洞
This is called a white hole. Unfortunately,
不幸的是爱因斯坦—罗森 桥事实上不能被穿过
Einstein-rosen bridges can’t actually be crossed.
穿过它需要无限长的时间
It takes an infinite amount
以至于在穿到对面宇宙过程中 虫洞会闭合
of time to cross over to the opposite universe and they crimp shut in the middle.
如果你进入了黑洞
If you go into a black hole,
你不会成为白洞喷出的物质
you won’t become the stuff coming out of the white hole.
你只会慢慢老去
You’ll only become dead. So,
所以 要实现快速的宇宙旅行
to travel the cosmos in the blink of an eye,
人类需要另一种虫洞
humans need a different kind of wormhole;
一个可穿越的虫洞
a Traversable Wormhole.
古老的弦理论虫洞
VERY OLD STRING THEORY WORMHOLES
如果弦理论或
If string theory or one
弦理论的变形式 能正确描述我们宇宙
of its variations is the correct description of our universe,
那么我们很幸运
then we could be lucky and our universe
因为弦理论预言 我们的宇宙有数不尽的虫洞网
might even have a tangled web of countless wormholes already.
大爆炸后很短的一段时间
Shortly after the Big Bang,
宇宙中远远小于原子波动的
Quantum fluctuations in the universe at the smallest scales
很微小的量子波动
far far smaller than an atom may have created many, many
创造了很多可穿过的虫洞
traversable wormholes.
它们通过宇宙弦相互连接
Threaded through them are strings, called cosmic strings.
在宇宙大爆炸后的第一个万亿分之一秒内
In the first billionth of a trillionth of a second
这小之又小的虫洞两端
after the Big Bang, the ends of these tiny,
被拉扯开数光年
tiny wormholes were pulled light-years apart;
使虫洞散布在宇宙中
scattering them through the universe.
如果虫洞形成于早期宇宙
If wormholes were made in the early universe,
无论虫洞是以宇宙弦还是其他方式存在 它们都遍布宇宙
whether with cosmic strings or some other way, they could be all over;
只是尚待探索
just waiting to be discovered.
虫洞可能比我们认为的更近
One might even be closer than we realize.
从外界来看 黑洞和虫洞是相似的
From the outside, black holes and wormholes can look very similar;
以致一些物理学家提出
leading some physicists to suggest
星际中心拥有特大质量的黑洞实际上就是虫洞
the supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies are actually wormholes.
要飞去银河系的中心去
It will be very hard to go all the
验证虫洞的存在是极困难的
way to the center of the Milky Way to
但这都还好
find out though, but that’s okay.
既然寻找到虫洞是极其困难的
There might be an equally extremely hard way to get our hands
那我们可以尝试去创造一个
on a wormhole, we could try to make one.
人造虫洞
MANMADE Wormholes
为了使虫洞可穿过且实用
To be traversable and useful,
我们需要虫洞具有如下特点
there are a few properties we want a wormhole to have.
首先 它一定是连接时空中距离遥远的两处
First, it must obviously connect to distant parts of space-time.
例如你的卧室和浴室
Like your bedroom and the bathroom,
或是地球和木星
or Earth and Jupiter. Second,
其次 它不包含任何
it should not contain any event horizons,
阻止双向旅行的事件视界
which would block two-way travel. Third,
再次 应当足够大的尺寸
it should be sufficiently sized so
以保证引力不会杀死旅行者
that the gravitational forces don’t kill human travelers.
首先要解决的问题是 保持人造虫洞不关闭
The biggest problem we have to solve, is keeping our wormholes open.
不管是什么样的虫洞 引力都会试图关闭它
No matter how we make wormholes, gravity tries to close them.
引力想要关闭虫洞 切断连接
Gravity wants to pinch it closed and cut the bridge;
只在末端留下黑洞
leaving only black holes at the ends.
无论它是两端都在我们宇宙的可穿过虫洞
Whether it’s a traversable wormhole with both ends in ours,
还是另一端在另一个宇宙的虫洞
or a wormhole to another universe,
引力都试图关闭虫洞 除非我们能够支撑它
it will try to close unless we have something propping it open.
对于弦理论虫洞 支撑是宇宙弦的工作
For very old string theory wormholes, that’s the cosmic strings job.
对于人造虫洞 我们需要新方法
For man-made wormholes, We need a new ingredient.
奇异粒子
Exotic matter.
这不像我们之前在地球上找到的物质 或是反物质
This isn’t anything like we find on earth, or even antimatter.
它是完全新的 不同的 令人激动的东西
It’s something totally new and different and exciting,
有着前所未有的良好属性
with crazy properties like nothing that’s ever been seen before.
奇异粒子具有负质量
Exotic matter is stuff that has a negative mass.
正质量则像是人 行星或者宇宙中其他东西
Positive mass like people and planets and everything else
因引力而相互吸引
in the universe, is attractive because of gravity.
而负质量拥有斥力 可以将你推往远处
But negative mass would be repulsive; it would push you away.
负质量形成了一种反引力 使我们能支撑虫洞
This makes a kind of anti-gravity the props open our wormholes.
并且奇异粒子必须具有巨大力量
And exotic matter must exert enormous pressure to
能够使时空敞开
push space-time open, greater even than the
该力量要比中子星中心形成的压力大
pressure of the centers of neutron stars.
有了奇异粒子 我们就能够合理地编织时空
With exotic matter, we could weave space-time however we see fit.
我们可能已经有了一种奇异粒子
We may even have a candidate for this exotic matter,
空间自身的真空
the vacuum of space itself.
真空中的量子涨落
Quantum fluctuations in empty space are
会不断的创造一对对粒子与反粒子
constantly creating pairs of particles and antiparticles,
只是他们在一瞬间就消失了
only for them to be annihilated an instant later.
真空中不断发生着量子涨落
The vacuum of space is boiling with them, and
我们已经能够操控它们去产生
we can already manipulate them to produce an effect similar
类似我们观测到的反物质的作用
to the negative mass we’re looking for.
我们能用这个去支撑人造虫洞
We could use this to stabilize our wormholes.
支撑好虫洞后 两端将同时出现
Once we’re keeping it open, the ends would start together.
所以 我们可以移动虫洞端口到有趣的地方
So we’d have to move them around to interesting places.
我们从连接太阳系开始
We could start by wiring the solar system;
使虫洞的一端在地球轨道周围
leaving one end of each wormhole in orbit around the earth.
使虫洞另一端在空间深处
We could flick others into deep space.
地球就成为了一个虫洞中心
The earth could be a wormhole hub
能够使人类文明通过绵延数光年
for a vast interstellar human civilization spread over light-years,
即一个虫洞的距离
but only a wormhole away. However,
然而 虫洞还有阴暗面
wormholes have a dark side.
即使打开一个单向虫洞
Even opening a single wormhole,
就打破了宇宙中的基本变化方式 可能导致时间旅行悖论
kind-of breaks the universe in fundamental ways, potentially creating time travel paradoxes,
并违反宇宙的因果结构
and violating the causal structure of the universe.
一些科学家认为这不仅意味着
Many scientists think that this not only means they
虫洞不可能被制造出来
should be impossible to make, but that it
而且它们理论上就是不可能存在的
‘s impossible for them to exist at all. So,
目前 我们只知道
for now, we only know
虫洞存在于我们心中
that wormholes exist in our hearts, and
存在于纸上的方程式中
on paper in the form of equations.
我们知道你想了解更多关于宇宙的东西
We know you want to know more about universe stuff, so,
我们正在尝试一些新东西
we’re trying something new.
Kurzgesagt和Brilliant合作了六部
Kurzgesagt and Brilliant are collaborating on a six-part video series
让人喜爱的关于科学与空间的视频
about our favorite science and space things.
感谢他们的帮助
Thanks to their help,
在接下来六个月 我们将会投送更多视频
there will be more videos on this channel in the next six months.
Kurzgesagt已经和Brilliant已合作一段时间了
Kurzgesagt has worked with Brilliant for a while now,
并且我们喜爱他们正在做的
and we love what they’re doing.
在科学坚果 Brilliant帮助你
In a Nutshell, Brilliant helps you to get ahead
积极解决富有挑战的问题 掌握数学和科学技能以取得领先
by mastering maths and science skills through actively solving challenging and fascinating problems.
要支持我们的合作
To support our collaboration with them,
访问 brilliant.org/nutshell 并且今日注册免费
visit brilliant.org/nutshell and sign up for free today.
最先使用链接的688人
The first 688 people that use the link
可以获得20%的年度会员折扣
will get 20% off their annual premium subscription.

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视频概述

讨论了虫洞存在可能性以及人造虫洞的方法……

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

张小豆

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9P6rdqiybaw

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