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用科学来解释一下爱情? – 译学馆
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用科学来解释一下爱情?

World’s Most Asked Questions: What Is Love?

超过15亿人每天上网 他们在网上查找很多东西
Over 1.5 billion people use the internet every day, and they search for pretty much anything.
例如”为什么谷仓是红色”或者”面筋怎么了?”
Like “Why are barns red?” and “What’s up with gluten?”
这里是科学秀 一个培养好奇心的地方
We here at SciShow are all about fostering curiosity.
这是我们和Google YouTube合作
That’s why we’ve worked with Google and YouTube to answer ten of the most popular
回答最受欢迎的十个问题的原因
questions searched on the internet.
这是世界上问的最多的问题
This is The World’s Most Asked Questions.
今天的问题是:什么是爱?
Today’s question: What is love?
这是使诗人和哲学家在晚上感到困惑的问题 但科学
It’s the kind of thing that keeps poets and philosophers up at night, but science
其实也对这个问题有很好的解释
actually has a pretty good explanation for it, too.
更确切的说 好几个解释
Actually, several explanations.
这个问题的答案取决于你问什么类型的科学家
And the answer might change depending on what kind of scientist you ask.
生物学家会说这就是一个物种的繁殖 演变和延续
A biologist would say it’s all about reproduction, and the evolution and survival of a species.
心理学家可能会认为这是我们对归属感和认同感的需要
A psychologist may go on about our need for togetherness and acceptance.
但是可能化学才是理解爱的最好方式
But possibly the best way to understand love is through chemistry.
脑化学
Brain chemistry.
尽管心是爱情的象征 但归根结底
Although the heart is our symbol of love for some reason, when it comes down to it, love
爱只和脑有关
is all about the brain.
我们之所以知道这件事是因为实际上我们能通过脑部活动的扫描看见爱
We know this because we can actually see love in action in brain scans.
你知道吗?
And you know what?
一个热恋中的人的脑袋看起来就像吸了毒一样
It looks a awful like a brain on cocaine.
当一个人陷入初恋时 脑中至少有十二个不同的部分亮起
As a person first falls in love, at least a dozen different brain parts light up to
并释放强大的化学物质-荷尔蒙和神经传递素-这激发了
release powerful chemicals — hormones and neurotransmitters — that trigger feelings
兴奋 狂喜 结合 忐忑的情绪
of excitement, euphoria, bonding, and butterflies.
研究也表明母亲对孩子那种无条件的爱也点亮了
Research also shows that the kind of unconditional love between a mother and child activates
脑中略微不同的地方
slightly different regions of the brain.
早期的浪漫爱情 相互吸引或者是你称为热情的东西
Early romantic love and attraction, what you might call passion,
就是给脑中的感官系统
is all about flooding the brain’s reward systems
带来了一场充满愉悦感的海啸肾上腺素 去甲肾上腺素和多巴胺等物质涌入脑中
in a tsunami of feel-good chemicals like adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
这就是刚陷入爱情的脑袋为什么看起来吸了毒一样的原因
This is why a brain on intense new love looks a whole lot like a brain on coke — adrenaline
肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素使得你心跳加速 焦躁不安
and norepinephrine amp up your heart rate and get you all restless, while those dopamine
同时多巴胺又使得你感到愉悦
drips leave you feeling euphoric.
这些化学物质点亮了你脑中的快感中心 降低了你的笑点
These chemicals light up your brain’s pleasure centers, lowering your pleasure thresholds,
使得你更容易感受到快乐
and making it easier to feel good about… everything.
有趣的是 这种充满热情的新的爱情也伴随着更低的血清素水平
Interestingly, this kind of passionate new love is also marked by lowered serotonin levels,
这和那些强迫症患者相似这也许能够解释
similar to those found in people with obsessive-compulsive disorders — which may help explain those
你热恋中的情人为什么会在你洗澡的时候给你发30条短信
30 texts your infatuated new lover sent while you were in the shower.
最终 一段新的恋情中剧烈的 痴迷的成分会沉淀成
Eventually, most of these more intense, obsessive components of new love settle down into a
充满忠诚的更深层次 更冷静的爱和羁绊
deeper, calmer form of love associated with attachment and bonding.
这时你脑中的化学物质由开始变化了 荷尔蒙例如后叶催产素和后叶加压素
Here your brain chemistry starts changing again, and hormones — like oxytocin and vasopressin
取而代之
— take over.
就像Al Green歌中唱到的 它们使得你们呆在一起
Their mission, like Al Green’s, is to get you to stay together.
你可能听说过后叶催产素 也就是所谓的”拥抱荷尔蒙”
You may have heard of oxytocin, the so-called the “cuddle hormone.”
它在性高潮时释放 在妇女分娩时产生 而且它能够
It gets released during orgasms, and for women during childbirth, and it helps cement bonds
帮助人们巩固关系
between people.
你可以把后叶加压素当做使人们倾向于选择单配偶的荷尔蒙
And you can think of vasopressin as the monogamy hormone.
你知道关于后叶加压素如何工作 谁告诉我们的最多吗?
And you know who’s taught us more about how it works than anything else?
草原土拨鼠 为数不多的一生只有一个配偶的哺乳动物之一
Prairie voles, one of the very few mammals that mate for life.
在交配之后 一只雄性土拨鼠的脑中充满了后叶加压素 基本上
After mating, a male vole’s brain gets flooded with vasopressin, and essentially gets hooked
会对它的伴侣永远忠诚
on his mate forever.
然后这两只土拨鼠有很多次交配 所有这些交配行为把叶加压素传递下去
The two then have lots of sex, and all that tiny boot-knocking keeps the vasopressin flowing.
然而当研究人员用一种化合物抑制后叶加压素的效果时
When researchers gave voles a compound that suppressed the effects of vasopressin, the
土拨鼠夫妇很快分开了 失去了对彼此的热爱
pairs quickly fell apart, losing their devotion to each other.
所以 在诗歌中 爱可能总是神秘的 但是从科学的角度看
So, while in the poetic sense, love may always be something of a mystery, from the scientific
爱在理解范围之内
view, it is within the realm of comprehension.
你怎么想的?
But what about you?
科学秀的观众朋友们的爱情生活是怎样的?
How are the love lives of the SciShow viewers?
在我们的调查对象中 51岁至60岁的人们
Well, of our survey takers, people within the ages of 51 and 60 are the most likely
最有可能得到爱
to have been in love.
那些从锻炼中获得能量的人也更有可能得到爱
People who got their energy most from exercise were also more likely to have been in love.
另一方面 那些说他们从食物中获得能量的人不太可能
On the other hand, people who said they got their energy from food were less likely to
得到爱
have been in love.
在世界上最迷人的问题中 你最想回答的是哪一个?
Of all the fascinating questions in the world, what question do you want answered most?
请在Facebook Twitter上参与评论 我们会
Let us know on Facebook or Twitter or in the comments down below, and we will answer the
在下月底的新节目中问答其中最好的问题
best questions in a new video at the end of the month.
不要忘了带上标签#WMAQ哦 敬请期待这周的另一个节目
And don’t forget to use the hashtag #WMAQ and stay tuned for other videos this week.

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视频概述

不同的科学家对爱情有不同的解释,让我们一起看看脑化学是怎样解释爱情的……

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