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能量究竟是什么? – 译学馆
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能量究竟是什么?

World's Most Asked Questions: What Is Energy?

正如你现在所知 我们在谷歌和YouTube上解答
As you probably know by now, we’ve been working with Google and YouTube to answer
网上十大最受欢迎的科学问题
ten of the most popular science questions asked on the internet.
接下来我要解答的这个问题 它令人们十分困惑
And I gotta hand it to you, because there are few questions that are as confounding
非常复杂 又使人着迷 让人鼓舞 并且受到众人关注
and complex and fascinating and inspiring, as this one the collective consciousness has
那就是
spewed forth:
能量是什么
What is energy?
我是汉克·格林 这里是 World’s Most Asked Questions频道(世界上提问最多的问题)
I’m Hank Green, and this is the World’s Most Asked Questions.
[简介]
[Intro]
能量可以是任何事物
Energy is everything.
它无处不在
It’s everywhere.
它是宇宙中永恒不变的常量 只要宇宙存在
It’s one of the true constants of the universe, because as long as there’s been a universe,
能量就会存在
there’s been energy.
虽然在我们看来能量具有许多不同的形式 但它们最终
And while it comes in lots of different forms that can seem different to us, they all amount
都归结为同一个结论:能量是做功的能力
to the same thing: Energy is the ability to do work.
做功是一种行为 通过施加力来改点某一事物
And work is just the act of displacing something by applying force.
所以 假设你在气压式跺脚火箭(一种火箭形状的玩具)上重重踩几脚
So, say you stomp on a stomp rocket.
脚踩踏板的力就会转化为发射装置的空气力
The force of your foot hitting the pedal is turned into the force of air leaving the cannon
让你的火箭飞起来
— sending your rocket sailing.
又或者你正在享用芝士牛堡三明治 食物分解出的能量
Or maybe you’re enjoying a nice patty melt — the energy from that food is broken down
提供给数千万亿的细胞 让它们能够各司其职
for all of the quadrillions of cells that you have to do all of the things that they
例如复制你的DNA 聚合并修复蛋白质 从一个地方输送物质
have to do — make copies of your DNA, assemble and repair proteins, transport materials from
到另一个 促使肌细胞收缩 你知道的 让身体每一部分保持活力
one place to another, make muscle cells contract — you know, all the stuff of being alive.
火箭飞行 细胞辛勤工作 你的手机或者电脑现在正常运作
That rocket sailing, your cells toiling away, your phone or computer being on right now
让你能够看到我 这些都是做功的结果
to watch me — that’s all work being done.
你身边所有事物的做功能力都是与生俱来的
And the ability to do these things is inherent in everything around you.
即使有些看上去是毫无生气 缺乏能量的
Even things that look inert, completely lacking in energy.
就像这根木棍
Like this log.
它充满了化学能量 因为它是由各类物质组合而成
This log, for example, is chock full of chemical energy because it’s made up of combinations
碳 氢 氧组合成为木质素 这是木头的组成成分
of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen formed into lignin, which is the stuff that makes up wood.
每个原子之间的联系 木质素里的每个分子 都含有能量
All of the bonds between all of those atoms, in every molecule of lignin, contain energy.
我是怎么知道的呢
How do I know?
因为如果我施加足够多的力 像加热 去破坏这些原有的联系
Because if I were to apply enough extra energy, like as heat, to break those bonds — it would
它就会释放出化学能量燃烧起来
release that chemical energy as fire.
这种化学能量也正如你从芝士牛堡三明治中获得的能量 你的身体
That chemical energy also the kind of energy you get from that patty melt — your body
由糖 脂肪和蛋白质之间的化学键能量所支撑
is fueled by the chemical bond energy in sugars, fats, and proteins.
但这根木棍还存在核能量!
But this log also contains nuclear energy!
这根木头里的每个原子都有一个原子核 质子和中子组成原子核 而那些将它们
Each atom in this wood has a nucleus, made of protons and neutrons, and the energy that
联系在一起的能量 正是宇宙中最为强大的能量来源之一
binds them together is one of the most powerful sources of energy in the universe.
如果你能分离这个木棍中一个原子的碳或者氢
If you could split one of the atoms of carbon or hydrogen in this log, and rip those protons
分离质子和中子 那就会释放出这种能量
and neutrons apart, it’d release some of that energy.
每个原子都含有大量的核能量 如果我能释放出所有
There’s so much nuclear energy in each atom that, if I could unleash all of it that’s
木棍中的核能量
in this log?
那么我所站的位置将会出现一个巨大的闷烧弹坑 每个在
There’d be a giant smoldering crater where I’m standing and everyone in the town of
蒙大拿州米苏拉镇的人都会死
Missoula, Montana would be dead.
所以 每个由原子构成的事物内部都蕴含着核能量 而且
So, everything that’s made of atoms has nuclear energy locked up in it, but also,
这也表明 这众多的能量都是相同的
it turns out, that mass and energy are the same thing!
你应该听说过这个等式 一名德国专利局办事员
You might have heard of this little equation that a German patent clerk came up with about
在一百年前提出 E=mc^2
a hundred years ago: E = mc^2.
如果有时间 我也想介绍其他更多类型的能量
And there are SO MANY OTHER KINDS of energy that I’d love to get into if we had the time …
即使它们看起来似乎不同 但都可以用来做功
.. but even though they may seem different, they can all be used to do work, whether it’s
驱动涡轮机 转动一个发动机活塞 亦或是让你的平板电脑屏幕发光
driving a turbine, or moving a engine piston, or allowing the screen on your tablet to glow.
再或者 最神秘的能量 暗物质能量 促使宇宙膨胀
Or, if it’s that most mysterious of energies, dark energy, causing the universe to expand
并超出它本身应该膨胀的范围
more than it seems like it should.
但要记住一点
But here’s the thing to remember.
即使做功完成了 能量也不会消失
Once the work is done, the energy isn’t done.
因为能量不会逃走
Because energy never goes away.
能量不能破坏 同样的 也不能创造
It can never be destroyed, and in the same way, it can never be created.
它只能从一个地方转移到另一个 就比如 芝士牛堡三明治所含的
It can only be transferred from one source to another — like, how the energy in the
动植物能量是如何转移到你身上的 它也可以
plants and animals that were in the patty melt were transferred into you — or it can
由一种形式转化为另一种 就像木头中的化学能量
be transferred from one form into another — like the chemical energy in the wood being
以燃烧的形式转化为光和热
transferred to light and heat as fire.
你可以认为宇宙是一个持续不断的能量流 而我们只是这股能量流上
You could think of the universe as a constant flow of energy, and we are just little pit
小小的停留点
stops along the way.
现在你的身体各项机能正在做的—— 你的肺吸收氧气 你的心脏
Everything your body is doing right now — whether it’s your lungs absorbing oxygen, your heart
输送血液 你的大脑细胞运作让你看到我并且能学习新事物
pumping blood, your brain cells firing as you watch me and learn things — all those
所有这些都依靠着从宇宙诞生之初就存在的循环能量
things are using recycled energy that’s been around since the origin of the universe.
只要你还活着 你就在向你周围的环境不断释放这种能量
And by simply being alive, you’re releasing that energy back into the environment around
它们会以其他方式作用在其他事物上
you, to be used by other things in other ways.
各位网民 现在来回答你的问题 能量可以是任何事物
So Internet, to answer your question: Energy is everything.
在科学秀调查里回答过问题的各位网友 这里也许就是
And for those of you who answered our questions on our SciShow survey, where you feel like
你在晚上也能保持清醒的能量来源之地
you get your energy may be keeping you up at night.
调查者几乎每晚都难以入睡 首先他们要从知识中
Survey takers who have a hard time falling asleep nearly every night get their energy
获得能量 其次是他们的意志
from knowledge first, second from purpose.
不可能?
Least likely?
通过练习就可以获得
From exercise.
世界上各种奇妙的问题 你最想知道哪个呢
Of all the fascinating questions in the world, what question do you want to see answered most?
你可以在Facebook和Twitter上提出 也可以在视频下方评论
Let us know on Facebook or Twitter or down in the comments down below and we will aim
我们会在每个月末 通过一个新短片来解答这些问题
to answer those questions in a new video at the end of the month.

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视频来源

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