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历史上的第一辆车 – 译学馆
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历史上的第一辆车

World's First Car!

我准备驾驶世界上第一辆汽车了
I am about to drive the world’s first car.
该车由卡尔•本茨发明 并于1886年获得专利权
This was invented by Karl Benz, patented in 1886.
当然 这个不是真品 而是复制品
Of course, this is not the real thing, this is a replica.
但是今天我同莫斯蒂斯合作
But I’ve partnered with Mercedes
来制作一期关于汽车安全的视频
to make a video about car safety.
对(笑声)
– Yeah. (laughs)
对嘛
– Right?
这车并不太安全
There’s not a lot of safety here.
安全问题过会再讲
Safety would come later.
准备好了么
You ready?
好了
– Yeah!
我相信你
I trust you.
引擎慢慢响起
(engine sputters slowly)
太棒了
Awesome!
我正在驾驶世界上第一辆摩托车
I’m driving the world’sfirst motor vehicle.
但卡尔制作其专利时 他是如何称呼此项发明的呢
When he made his patent, whatdid he call this invention?
专利摩托车
Patent Motorcar.
这是汽油箱
This is the gasoline tank.
当时在德国能买到轻石油或汽油的唯一地方
The only place in Germanywhere you could actually buy ligroin,
就是药房了
or gasoline,back then were pharmacies.
别担心 人们并不是将石油作为咳嗽药卖出的
They sold it not as a coughmedicine, don’t worry.
而是作为除污剂或是清洗剂卖出
They sold it as a stainremover, a washing agent.
在德国 仍然存在一个单词Waschbenzin
In Germany, there’s stilla word, Waschbenzin,
即清洗汽油 但人们却并不清楚
washing gasoline, but no one really knows
为何这样称呼它
why it’s called like that.
本茨早就考虑到了安全问题
Benz had an early thing for safety.
他的点火装置很是先进
His ignition is a really modern one,
因为此处内置电池
because in here there’s a battery inside
这在当时十分新颖 并且
which was fairly new back then. And,
当然 用电火花点燃的汽油氧气体
of course, ignitingthe gasoline oxygen fumes
要比你在那儿
with an electric spark is much safer than
用打火机点燃安全得多
if you go with your lighter there
并且你会把整个机器点燃的
and you’re trying to ignite a whole thing.
最重要的部分
Let’s say the mostimportant part, or course,
当然是带有活塞的气缸了
is the cylinder with the piston.
活塞前后移动
And the piston moves front and back.
这是一个单一的气缸引擎
– This is a single cylinder engine.
对 单一的气缸引擎
– Yeah, a single cylinder engine.
这是冷却水箱 当然 真是重要的是
This is the cooling water tank, and of course what’s really important,
这是油箱
it’s the oil reservoir.
润滑作用十分重要 因为你可以看到
Lubrication is reallyimportant, because you can see
一切都是暴露在空气之中
everything’s open here,
所以 车一直都在漏油
and so all the time you lose a lot of oil,
对我的同事而言 清理这辆车一直都是个烦恼事儿
and for my colleagues it’s always a big fuss cleaning this thing up.
这是传动带
This the drive belt.

Right.
这不仅是传动带 也是刹车
It’s not just a drivebelt, it’s also your brake.
它是皮革制品
It’s leather,
因而你可以想象一下如果你一直刹车
so you can imagine if you do brake a lot
皮带就会出问题
you get problems with the leather band.
这是点火装置需要的调速轮
The flywheel here weneed for the ignition.
我们需要启动它
We need it to start it.
引擎响起
(engine sputters)

– Wow!
笑声
(laughs)
没错吧 是不是十分简单
Okay, see, that’s really simple.
这个并没有太多需要操控的东西
We don’t have a lot of stuff here.

Yeah.
只需控制方向盘
We just have the steering crank,
这是油门和刹车
and this is our gas and our brakes.
好的 你要开始加速了吗?
Okay, you’re moving us into gear.

Yeah.

Whoa!
引擎响起
(engine sputters)
这个速度并不快
This does feel fast.
嗯 这个能开得更快些
Oh, it even goes, ahh, faster.

Whoa! (both laugh)
这辆车的车速最快达到16千米/小时
The top speed of this vehiclewas 16 kilometers per hour,
相当于每小时10英里
that’s about 10 miles an hour.
我们可以开快一些
We can go fast.
他比我想象的速度要快
It feels faster than I was expecting.
引擎响起
(engine sputters)
仅仅十六年的时间里 这辆车速度能够达到80千米/小时
Just 16 years later, this car could go 80 kilometers per hour.
这辆1928年的车速度能达到192千米/小时
This car in 1928 could alreadygo 192 kilometers per hour.
直到1938年 汽车的速度已经快到令人难以置信
By 1938, cars had gotten incredibly fast.
这辆车创下了时速432.7千米/小时的纪录
This car right here set a record of 432.7 kilometers per hour.
将近270英里里/小时
That’s almost 270 miles per hour,
并且另一个试图打破这一纪录的驾驶员
and another driver tryingto beat that record
在同一天去世了
died the same day.
直到今天
And to this day,
没有车能在公路上快过那辆车
no one has beat that car on a public road.
汽车变革了交通方式
The automobile revolutionizedtransportation.
它能让人们出行更加快捷
It allowed people to travelfaster than ever before.
但这也带来了一个困难的物理问题
But that also created a reallydifficult physics problem,
那就是
which is that
如果你高速驾驶时需要停车
if you’re moving fast and you need to stop
或是将撞上了某物 你不得不立马减速
or you hit something, you have to decelerate incredibly rapidly
这会给车内的人带来很大的冲击力
and that creates huge forceson the people inside the car,
从而导致受伤甚至是死亡
and causing injury and sometimes death.
并且随着路上的汽车越来越多
And as more and more cars came on the road
行驶速度越来越快 伤亡人数也在逐渐增加
and traveled faster and faster, the number of fatalities increased,
在70年代的发达国家 这一数字达到顶峰
peaking in a lot of developednations in the’70s.
但随后科学家和工程师接受了这个挑战
But then scientists andengineers embraced this challenge
并且寻找出独特新颖的方式
and figured out new, innovative ways
来生产汽车 从而使得伤害最小化
to create cars to minimize those injuries.
为了提高安全性 20世纪50年代后期
To improve safety, regular crash testing
汽车开始接受常规的碰撞测试
began in the late 1950s.
但令我惊奇的是
But what amazes me is,
碰撞测试实验品至今没有完善
the crash test dummy really hadn’t been perfected yet.
所以在碰撞实验中 科学家和工程师亲自驾驶汽车
So actual scientists and engineers drove the cars in crash tests.
事实上 和我一样 人们也加入到
People like me actually started
首次参与测试的队列中
to do first testing with themselves.
一定的加速度 你能承受的伤害程度
Certain accelerations,how much you can suffer,
我是指在你受伤之前
I mean before you get any injuries.
当然 如今 这不会发生的
Of course, today thiswould be impossible to do.
但当他们最终开发碰撞实验实验品时
– But when they finally diddevelop crash test dummies,
人们已不再开车了
well then people weren’t driving the cars anymore
因此他们需要采取不同的方法来推动汽车
so they needed a different way to propel the vehicle.
因此他们使用了这个 热水火箭
And so they used this, a hot water rocket,
来推动汽车在所有碰撞实验场景中行驶
to propel the car into allsorts of crash test situations.
首要安全创新之一
One of the first major safety innovations
就是在1959年出现在车体上的撞击缓冲区
that was introduced in a car like this in 1959 was crumple zones.
在发生事故时 车头和车尾可
That is, regions in the front and the rear of the car
车身中设计成可收缩部分的缓冲区域
that were designed to collapsein the event of an accident.
我记得小时候 听说撞击缓冲区时
I remember when I was a kid,hearing about crumple zones
我曾认为这是提高安全性的一个十分荒谬的想法
thinking that was a ridiculousidea to improve safety.
你为什么想让自己的车收缩呢
I mean, why would youwant your car to collapse?
但重点是在于 减速时
But the point is to increase the distance
增加距离
over which the deceleration occurs,
这样做的话 可以减少加速程度
and in doing so, youactually reduce the magnitude
以及减少给车内人员带来的冲击力
of the acceleration and so you reduce the forces on the passengers inside.
这能便能拯救生命
And that is what saves lives.
这辆车经过了以每小时60公里的速度
This vehicle has done a64 kilometer per hour crash,
撞击可变性障碍物的碰撞实验
frontal impact, againsta deformable barrier.
这就是我们所说的撞击缓冲区
This is what we classicallycall the crumple zone.
但是这个防撞护栏是否就是缓冲撞击的呢
But it’s this beam herethat’s designed to crumple?
是的
Exactly.
所以防撞护栏通过折叠带走了大量的能量
So this takes away a lotof energy by crumpling.
乘客舱本身是利用
The passenger compartmentitself is designed with
不同的钢材 高硬度
different steel qualities, if you want,
和超高硬度材料设计而成的
high strength and ultrahigh strength materials,
所以 当你离乘客舱越近
so that it’s getting stifferand stiffer as closer
它就会变得越硬
as you get to the passenger compartment.
对于汽车安全性而言 最大的挑战之一即是
– One of the biggestchallenges for car safety is
牛顿第一定律 即一切保持
Newton’s First Law thatsays whatever is moving
匀速运动的物体总会保持匀速
at a constant speed will tend to maintain that constant speed.
因此如果一辆车撞上某物 车内的人会
So if a car hits something,the people inside
保持恒速 飞出挡风玻璃
maintain their constant speed,fly through the windshield,
并会在撞到路上时 承受极速的减速冲击
and suffer a very high decelerationwhen they hit the road.
这就是安全带如此重要的原因
This is why seatbelts are so important.
它们能确保你呆在车内
They ensure that you stay in the vehicle
并且能让你减速
and decelerate with it.
在安全带使用初期
You know, when seatbeltswere originally introduced,
它们只是一项选择 你可以额外花钱购买
they were an option, somethingyou could pay extra for.
但一旦我们意识到它们的用处
But once we realizedjust how useful they are
以及如何拯救生命 它们就变成了
and how they save lives,well, they became standard
标准 现在成为了强制性措施
and now they are mandatory. Now,
安全气囊是奔驰在1981年在一辆
airbags were madeavailable by Mercedes-Benz
认真生产汽车中首次制成的
for the first time in aserious production car in 1981.
这一理念相同
And again, the idea is similar.
在头部发生撞击时 你想阻止驾驶员的头部
In a head-on collision, youwant to stop the driver’s head
因为车速过快而撞上方向盘
from accelerating too fastinto the steering wheel,
而这就是安全气袋的作用
and that’s what the airbag does.
它能实现长距离加速
It allows that acceleration to take place
以及更低的速度发生
over a larger distance and therefore at a lower rate.
它有助于保护驾驶员的头部
So it helps preserve the driver’s head.
你还可以看到的是这条缝隙
What you can also see is, look at this tiny gap here.
你几乎无法将手指放入其中
You can barely get yourfingers in between.
那个转向柱变形了
So that steering column has collapsed.
对的
Exactly.
它本就是可弯曲的
And it has collapsed in a designed way.
因此当你达到一定的阈值后
So after you reach acertain force threshold,
驾驶员基本上会通过带走能量
then the driver basically pushes away
推开整个转向柱
the entire steering column,including the airbag,
包括安全气袋
by taking away energy.
作为一名约束系统的工程师
And what you want to do
你要做的是
as an engineer for restraint systems
你想要基本上将驾驶员 乘客
is that you want to basicallyconnect the driver, passenger,
以及车里的人尽可能的被固定
and the occupants as tightlyas possible to the car
从而使你有充分的时间减速
in a way that you have themost time to decelerate.
安全带,撞击缓冲区,以及安全气囊属于非能动式安全设施
Seatbelts, crumple zones, and airbags are all passive safety features.
因为它们在碰撞发生时
They’re passive in that they assume a collision
它们只能减少
is occurring and they’re just trying to reduce
车内乘客的加速度
the acceleration on the passengers inside.
但车里也有能动安全设施
But there are also active safety systems,
如ABS防抱死制动装置
like the anti-lock braking system, or ABS,
该装置于1978年被奔驰公司率先采用
which was introduced by Mercedes in 1978.
防抱死制动装置能增加你的控车能力
The idea with ABS is togive you more control
或许你能调转车头以避免交通事故
so you may be able to swerve the car and avoid an accident.
防抱死制动装置运作的方式是让车轮保持转动
The way ABS works is byallowing the wheels to rotate
而非让车轮停止旋转
rather than locking them up,
或是在地表滑行
and having the wheels slide across the ground
传统的制动系统便是如此
as might happen withtraditional braking systems. So,
所以 防抱死制动装置让车轮能继续转动
with ABS the wheel is allowed to turn,
然后开始刹车
and then it’s braked hard,
然后继续让车轮转动
and then it turns a little more,
然后再次刹车
brakes again.
在短时间内连续完成上述步骤
And by doing that in quick succession
你让车轮在路面保持转动
you allow the wheel tostay rolling on the ground
保持与路面的静摩擦力
and maintain staticfriction against the road.
实际上能增强摩擦力
That actually increasesthe frictional force
也能增加减速能力
and increases your ability to decelerate
从而避免碰撞
and also steer around a collision.
防抱死制动装置是在原有的刹车系统基础上的巨大改良
So ABS was a huge improvementover past braking systems.
这些革新都大大增强了路上行驶的安全性
All of these innovations have dramatically improved road safety.
但我们还有很多需要改进的地方
But there’s always more to be done.
我得简单介绍一下
And I got to take a look
奔驰公司的智能驱动技术
at Mercedes Benz Intelligent Drive technology,
奔驰公司正计划利用该技术提高安全性 汽车性能
which is what they’re doing right now to improve safety, performance,
以及汽车的便捷性能
and convenience.
我曾在奔驰公司频道发布过一系列的相关视频
And I actually made a series of videos about that over on Mercedes-Benz Channel.
你可以点击此处进行观看
You can click here to check them out.
那么现在呢
(car engine hums) Okay,
我们正驶向一危险的弯道
we’re about to gointo a dangerous turn.
(刹车声)感受一下Pre-Safe技术
(brakes squeal) andexperience the Pre-Safe.
(笑声)我没法刹车啊
(laughing) – [Driver] Hey, I can’t brake.
我能看到这辆行驶的汽车 我的天哪
– I can see this car coming, oh my god!
(刹车声)
(brakes squeal)
在这种情况下我一般会刹车
(host laughs) – It tends forme to brake in this situation.
我体验了我这辈子
– I have been in more potentiallycrash situations today
最惊险的一次车祸情景
than I have been in for mywhole life. (driver laughs)

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视频概述

这则视频可以带你了解一下汽车的发展史以及汽车的相应技术的使用与革新,汽车爱好者们赶紧行动起来

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Kevin

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DL_mJeb6O04

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