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木质摩天大楼将成为未来城市建筑的趋势 – 译学馆
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木质摩天大楼将成为未来城市建筑的趋势

Wooden skyscrapers could be the future for cities | The Economist

到2050年 世界人口
By 2050, the world’s population is
预期将涨到大约100亿
expected to soar to almost 10 billion people…
而且三分之二的人将在城市中生活
…and two-thirds of us will live in cities
地价将非常昂贵
Space will be at a premium
建造高楼成了个解决方法
High-rise offers a solution
但混凝土和钢
But concrete and steel,
这些当前用于建造高楼的材料
the materials we currently use to build high…
会造成较大的碳排放
…have a large carbon footprint
解决方法可能会是
An answer might lie
千年前我们使用的一种天然材料
in a natural material we’ve used for millennia
我们认为所有建筑都应是木制的
Our view is that all buildings shouldbe made of timber
我们应将混凝土和钢材的使用
We think that we should be looking atconcrete and steel…
与汽油和柴油等同起来看待
…like we look at petrol and diesel
我有个很实际的想法
I think it’s very realistic to think
将来有人会建造一栋木制高楼
that someone will build a wooden skyscraper…
有许多可能尚未实现
…in the coming years, there’s a lot ofpotential that’s unrealised…
例如大规模使用木材
…for using timber at a very large scale
历史上 建筑曾是木制的
Throughout history, buildings havebeen made of wood
但它有个缺点 它是一种可燃物
But it has one major drawback,it acts as kindling
火曾摧毁大片
Fire has destroyed large swathes of some
世界上的大城市
of the world’s great cities
但到二十世纪初
But by the early twentieth century,
近代钢铁制造时代到来
the era of modern steelmaking had arrived
钢铁强度大
Steel was strong,
且能被铸造成各种形状或做成钢筋混凝土
could be moulded into any shape and used to reinforce concrete
建筑师们通过它能造比以往更高的楼
It allowed architects to build higherthan ever before
在经历了一个混凝土与钢铁的世纪
So why, after more than a century ofconcrete and steel…
为什么一些建筑师提议要用木材呢?
…are some architects proposinga return to wood?
如果混凝土成为《龙潭虎穴》中的新材料
If concrete were to arrive as a new material on Dragon’s Den…
如果你要推荐 说:我已经得到了新材料
…if you were to pitch it and say,”I’ve got this brand-new material…
它是液态的
it’s liquid,
你能把它造成任何形状的固体构件
and you can pour it into any shape and it’ll solidify”
这听起来不赖
That sounds great
但当你说
But when you say,
我们需要一队卡车把它挪开
” We need a whole new fleet of trucks to move it around
事实上 当它凝固后 它的强度不够大
And actually, when it solidifies it’s not strong enough
我们需要用钢筋加强
We have to stick this other stuff in it called steel”
我认为这不是个好办法
I don’t think it would be a compelling case
钢筋混凝土昂贵且笨重
Concrete and steel are costly to produce and heavy to transport
而木材能保证生产又更轻
wood, however, can be grown sustainablyand it’s lighter than concrete
重点是 树木生长时
And crucially, as trees grow… …
它们能从空气中吸收二氧化碳
they absorb carbon dioxide from the air,
把它固定在木材中
locking it into the timber
研究证明用木材造一栋125米高的大楼
One study showed that using wood toconstruct a 125-metre skyscraper…
可以减少建筑碳排放75%
…could reduce the building’s carbonfootprint by up to 75%
常规木材没有混凝土的可塑性
Regular timber isn’t malleable like steel orconcrete…
而且强度也不足以建造高楼
…and isn’t strong enoughto build high
但工程师们想出了个办法
But engineers have come up with a solution
交叉复合木材 简称CLT
It’s called cross-laminated timber,or CLT for short
这是一种新材料 尽管这种基础材料
It’s basically a new material, even thoughthe underlying material…
我们已经用了上千年
…is something we’ve used for millennia
交叉复合木材把每块木板用胶水
It’s cross-laminated so the layers of wood are glued
成90度粘在一起
at 90 degrees to each other
构成一个十分牢固的构件
That makes for a very, very stable material
CLT很轻而且它比得上
CLT is light and it’s comparable
钢筋和混凝土的强度
in strength to concrete and steel
但要怎么解决高温热源呢?
But how does it cope when burnt with a high heat source?
碳化木材是个很好的绝热材料
Charred wood is extremely insulating
这是自然界树木抵抗森林大火的方式
That’s the tree’s natural protectionagainst a forest fire
木材碳化后结构质量减少
It chars, it loses some of its structural mass,
但当你去除火源
but when you remove the source of flame…
它自己便会熄灭
…it extinguishes itself
钢材加热后 它会稍微变软
When steel gets hot, it gets a bit softer
我们曾亲眼见过钢制屋顶在火灾中坍塌
We’ve actually seen some steel roofscollapse in fires…
而木制屋顶则没有
…where wooden roofs have not …
伦敦建筑师沃·西斯尔顿
London architects Waugh Thistleton
正在设计一栋用新型木材建造的建筑
…are already designing buildings withthis new kind of timber
这后面有座CLT建筑
There’s a CLT building behind,
且这栋建筑有木制表面
where the timber building sits behind timber clad
然后 这是条简易镀锌走道
And then there’s a really simple galvanised steel walkway
交叉复合木材是一种常用的材料
Cross laminated timber is a material wework with a lot
当这些材料到位后
Once these panels arrive on site…
我们至少可以一周建一层楼
…we’re building a floor a week, at least
非常快 可能比混凝土工程快一倍
So this is incredibly fast, maybe twice asfast as concrete
因为建一栋混凝土建筑
Because when you build a concrete building
我们所说的混凝土建筑
what we call concrete buildings…
是水泥板和柱造成的结构
…are actually floor slabs and columns
当我们建造交叉复合木材建筑
When we build a cross laminated timber building,
我们只需要木板
it’s building floor slabs…
所有的内外墙体 电梯内核
…all the external walls, allthe internal walls, the lift cores…
楼梯 楼梯主体 一切都是以木材为材料
…the stairs, the stair cores,everything is made of timber
这样形成了一种蜂窝状结构
So these are like honeycomb structures
安德鲁和他同事设计了
Andrew and his colleagues designed…
英国第一栋高层木制公寓
…Britain’s first high-rise woodenapartment block…
最近还完成了世上最大的木基础建筑
…and have recently completed the world’slargest timber-based building
这些砖块后面是木制核心
Behind these bricks is a timber core…
以大森林里的两千多棵树为材料
…made from more than 2000 trees,sourced from sustainable forests
而且这座伦敦里的建筑不是唯一的
And this London practice is not alone
使用CLT材料的建筑
in advocating the use of CLT
高大木制建筑也出现在斯堪的纳维亚半岛
Ambitious wooden high-rise buildings arealso being constructed in Scandinavia…
中欧和北美
…central Europe and North America
至今仍未出现高于55米的CLT材料建筑
As yet, nobody has used CLT to buildbeyond 55 metres
但迈克·拉梅奇的剑桥实验中心
But Michael Ramage’s research centre inCambridge…
同时进行另一项伦敦的实验
…working with another London practice… …
提出了一个300米塔楼的概念设计
has proposed a concept design of a 300-metre tower,
建在伦敦的标志性建筑之一
to be built on top of one of London’s most iconic concrete structures
巴比肯之上
the Barbican
我们造奥克木塔的方法
The way we’ve engineered the Oakwood Tower
着眼于总体设计
is to look at the global structure
是否稳固?站得住脚吗?
Is it stable, and would it stand up?
我们相信可以
We believe the answer is yes
奥克木塔的地基
The columns at the base of the Oakwood Tower would be
大约有2.5平方米
about 2.5 metres square…
由结实的木材胶合而成
…so that’s solid timber, made of smallelements glued together
我认为我们将看到楼层高度的不断提升
I think we’ll probably see incrementalincreases from the current height…
从目前的50米到将来某时
…of about 50 metres, and at some point… …
有人会改变记录
someone will make a step change,
可能会达到100米
probably to up about 100 metres
在高度上做出跳跃性进步很困难
Making that jump in height willbe a difficult sell
建造木制摩天大楼的花费几乎未知
The cost of building wooden skyscrapersis largely unknown…
但是那些消耗可以减少
…but those costs could be reduced…
通过在工厂里预制建筑的大型构件
…by prefabricating large sectionsof buildings in factories
另外城市居民需要劝导
And city-dwellers will needto be persuaded…
告诉他们CLT不会像普通木头一样燃烧
…that CLT does not burn likeordinary wood
作为一种吸引人的天然材料
As an attractive, natural material,
木材已然在低层建筑中流行
wood is already popular for use in low buildings
在规划师的支持之下 它将达到一个新高度
If planners approve,it could rise to new heights

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优秀的木制高楼可能成为未来的主流。

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视频来源

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