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化学女性:元素周期表中的英雄 – 译学馆
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化学女性:元素周期表中的英雄

Women in Chemistry: Heroes of the Periodic Table

1871年 德米特里·门捷列夫的元素周期表问世了
In 1871, Dimitri Mendeleev’s periodic table was presented to the world,
相比我们今天使用的118元素表
but missing many of the 118 elements
这个表少了很多元素
that we have today.
他巧妙地将元素按照
His ingenious design perfectly organized the elements based
相似的性质完美排列
on similarities in their properties,
为还未发现的元素预留了位置
leaving place-holders for those as of yetundiscovered.
而后来每一个元素的加入
Each element added since then
都有着美妙的科学发现
has a unique story of scientific discovery,
为了纪念女性对完善国际元素周期表
and to honor women’s history month in the international year
所做出的贡献
of the periodic table,
今天我们想分享化学领域
today we wanted to share the story of
两位勇敢杰出女性化学家
two of chemistry’s most brilliant and bold women
探索元素的历程
and their paths of elemental discovery
因为她们的发现改变了世界
because what they brought to the table changed the world.
那要从1896年说起 传奇科学家
It all starts in 1896 when legendary scientist,
玛丽·居里在学习铀时
Marie Curie, had a breakthrough discovery
有了重大发现
while studying uranium.
她用静电计
By using a tool called an electrometer,
在铀样本的周围空气中
she was able to detect electrical charge in the
检测到了电荷 之后在一块矿石中发现了铀
air around a uranium sample, and later in samples of minerals containing uranium.
而且铀样本的浓度越高 空气所带电荷越多
The higher the concentration of uranium, themore charged the air.
根据发现 她作出了假设
Her findings lead her to hypothesize
射线并不是某种化合物
that radiation didn’t come from particular combinations
而是来自原子自身形成的特定形态
of elements, but rather from specific typesof atoms themselves.
她用静电计系统地研究了元素周期表上的
She would use her electrometer to systematically survey each element
每一种元素
on the table, in addition
另外还有许多不同的矿物
to many different minerals.
直到1897年 她总结出
By 1897, she had concluded
铀和钍是唯一已知的放射性元素
that Uranium and Thorium were the only known radioactive elements
而铀是最具放射性的
— with uranium being the most radioactive.
在她研究矿物时
While continuing her survey on minerals,
她在沥青铀矿中发现了五倍辐射的铀
she discovered five times the radioactivity of
以及在铜铀云母中
uranium in a sample called pitchblende,
发现两倍的放射性铀
and twice as much in another called torbernite.
这就意味着必然存在另外一种辐射的来源
This meant that there had to be another source of radioactivity,
如果她的猜想正确的话
and if her hypothesis was correct-
有一种新元素!
a new element!
居里夫人的丈夫皮埃尔放弃自己
Curie’s husband Pierre then abandoned his own work
研究晶体对称结构的工作
on crystal symmetry to help her search
来帮助其发现更高放射性的物质
for more highly radioactive minerals.
1898年 在夫妻俩
By 1898, the duo had
研究了大量样本后 他们自信地公布了
surveyed enough samples to confidently pronounce the discovery of
钋和镭两种新元素的发现
two new elements: polonium and radium.
但是仅仅是发现还不够
But predictions weren’t enough,
他们需要在实验室中 把它们提取出来
the two would need to isolate these elements in the lab.
因为他们在自然界中极少
Because they exist in such small quantities in nature,
他们需要成吨的材料
they would need tons of material
才能提取到足够多的量
to be able to extract them in measurable quantities.
她夜以继日地手工搬动
As she worked by hand with samples weighing over forty pounds,
重达四十磅的样本矿石
day in and day out.
经过长达三年的辛苦努力
After three long years of back-breaking labor,
他们分离出了一分克的氯化镭
they were left with one decigram of radium chloride,
足以用来测量出镭226的原子质量
enough to determine an atomic weightof 226.
钋一直没有被提取出来
Polonium was never extracted successfully,
但只因为对当时的工具和技术来说
but only due to its relatively short half life
钋的半衰期较短而无法测量
for the tools and techniques of the time,
但后来的方法在它的同位素
but future methods would verify its existence
钋210中证实了它的存在
later on in form of polonium-210.
夫妻俩对物质放射性的研究使其获得了诺贝尔物理学奖
The duo’s work in radioactivity would earn them a Nobel Prize in physics,
而居里夫人
but Marie would
因其对新元素的发现获得了诺贝尔化学奖
also earn the honor of another Nobel in Chemistry for her elemental discoveries!
为纪念她的坚韧和天分
Her tenacity and genius were later memorialized
1944年人们将新发现的第96位元素
for the discovery of element 96 in 1944
命名为锔来纪念居里夫人
which was named Curium in Marie’s honor.
另一个故事发生在1924年
Our next story starts in 1924,
距离居里夫人发现镭后30年
nearly thirty years after Curie’s discoveries.
德国化学家艾德·塔克
A German chemist named Ida Tacke
和她的同事(未来的丈夫)沃尔特·罗德克一道
began looking at other empty slots in Mendeleev’s table
开始审视门捷列元素周期表上的其他空位
along with fellow chemist (and future husband) Walter Noddack.
他们关注到表中锰元素下面的两个空格
They focused their energy on two slots just below manganese,
第43和75号元素
elements 43 and 75,
并依靠艾德独特而准确直觉
and approached them
发现了它们
with Ida’s unique, yet intuitive perspective.
他们开始观察表中元素及其相邻元素的模式
They began studying patterns between elements and their neighbors on the table.
发现锰在地壳中的丰度
Noting that manganese existed in a similar abundance
与它同一行的相邻元素 铁 差不多
in Earth’s crust to its horizontal neighbor iron,
他们据此推测 43和75号元素
they were able to deduce that 43 & 75
与它们同一行的相邻元素
would share the same quality
也会有同样的特性
with their horizontal neighbors as well.
他们确信所要找寻的
This would meant that their best bet
空缺的元素就大量存在于
for finding these missing elements was within mineral
含有钼 钨 钌和锇的矿石标本中
samples that contained high concentrationsof molybdenum, tungsten, ruthenium, and osmium.
在同事奥特·伯吉的帮助下
With the help of their colleague Otto Berg,
他们开始使用X射线光谱测定法
they began their search using x-ray spectroscopy,
最后在一种叫做挪威铁矿的矿石中找到了
and found success in a mineral called Norwegian Columbite.
至此 他们发现了第75号元素
There, they discovered Element 75,
以艾德出生地莱茵河命名为 铼
which they named Rhenium after the Rhine River in Ida’s birthplace,
和第43号元素 锝
and element 43, Masurium,
以威尔特东德的家乡命名
named in honor of Walter’s East German home.
在独创研究取得突破后
After their ingenious breakthrough search,
他们结婚了
the duo would get married,
但是 元素发现没有这么好的结局
but not all would end well in this chemical tale.
科学家学会退回了他们发表的文章
The scientific community pushed back on their publications –
因此 他们将需要在实验室分离出
so they would need to isolate
两种元素的样品
samples of their findings in the lab.
二人试图从超过1800份矿物样本中
The two attempted to extract their elements
提取他们的元素
from over 1800 samples of different minerals,
但只提取出了足够多的铼以供验证
but only successfully isolated Rhenium in high enough quantities to be verified.
虽然二人成功地发现了锝元素
Even though the duo successfully identified Masurium,
他们未能最先实现足够质量的提取
they would not be the first to isolate
来进行证明
it in large enough quantities to
最终另一组科学家
confirm — eventually another group of scientists would synthesize
在1937年的一次核反应中合成了它 并重命名为锝
it in a nuclear reaction in 1937, when it was renamed Technetium.
玛丽·居里与依达·诺达克是化学界的代表人物
Marie Curie and Ida Noddack are icons of chemistry
她们创新的才慧和无畏的成就
for their innovative genius, and their bold
激励了一代又一代年轻女性
accomplishments have inspired generations
在长大后追求她们所热爱的
of young women to grow up in pursuit of what
化学
they love – chemistry!
还会有更多人追随她们的脚步
Many more would follow in their periodic footsteps,
为周期表增添更多新元素
contributing newer elements in the table,
并为科学领域的女性书写更加光辉的历史
and adding to the radiant history of womenin the sciences.
你们有被科学界的女性所激励呢?
Have any of you out there been inspired by women in science?
请在下面评论处 讲出你们的故事
Tell us your story down below in the comments.
你喜欢这个关于化学史的短片吗?
Did you like this chemistry history video?
如有更多需求 特别是关于学家的 请告诉我们
Let us know if you want more, and what chemists in particular!
当你访问的时候一定要
Be sure to check out our other chemistry videos
观看我们的其他化学视频
while you’re at it,
下周见
and we’ll see you next week.

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视频概述

很好的科普文,讲述了两位为化学作出伟大贡献的女科学家的故事

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

CT

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zv8jECGdZAY

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