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猎杀女巫:最早的假新闻 – 译学馆
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猎杀女巫:最早的假新闻

Witch Hunts: Where "Fake News" Began | Niall Ferguson’s Networld | PBS

– They make it up.
他们胡说
It is so dishonest, it is so fake.
满口谎话 太假了
And, you know, I have come up with some pretty good names for people.
而且 你们知道的 我想给我的人民留下好的名声
I think one of the best names is,
我觉得最好名声就是
you know, I’ve really started this whole fake news thing.
你知道的 我真的开始整一整假新闻了
Really?
真的吗?
Try turning back the clock by 500 years.
试着让时光倒转500年
Fake news is nothing new.
假新闻不是什么新鲜事
The Reformation began with Martin Luther
马丁路德发起了宗教改革运动
criticizing the Roman Catholic Church
他批判罗马天主教会
for selling indulgences
因为他们出售赎罪券
so that people’s souls would spend less time in purgatory.
这样人们的灵魂在炼狱中的时间就变少了
Yet Luther wrote in his Commentary on Galatians,
然而路德在他的《加拉太书注释》中写道
“When I was a child, there were many witches
“当我还是孩子的时候 有很多女巫
“and they bewitched both cattle and men,
她们蛊惑牛和男人
“especially children.”
尤其是孩子们”
Later, Luther also wrote, “For where God builds a church,
后来 路德还写到:“在上帝建造教堂的地方
“there the devil would also build a chapel.”
恶魔也会在那里建一个小教堂”
Such falsehoods can have fatal consequences
这种谎言一旦通过社交网络传播开
once they go viral via social networks.
会带来致命的后果
Promoted by the printed word,
通过文字传播
witch-hunting spread virally through Europe during the Counter-Reformation,
反宗教改革期间 猎巫活动在欧洲蔓延
as competing Catholics and Protestants
天主教与新教竞争
sought to attract new followers
通过揭露女巫显示他们的水平
by demonstrating their prowess at exposing witches.
试图吸引新的教徒
In England, the witch craze reached its horrifying climax between 1645 and 1647,
1645年至1647年间 英国的剑桥郡清教徒中心地带
here, in the Puritan heartland of Cambridgeshire.
对女巫的猎杀达到了可怕的高潮
Matthew Hopkins, known as the Witchfinder General,
马修·霍普金斯 被称为首席女巫搜查官
claimed the lives of 200 men and women here.
声称在这杀死了200个男人和女人
Clearly, Hopkins believed in his God-given mission.
显然 霍普金斯相信上帝赐予他的使命
But he was also on a bonus plan.
但他还是为了奖金计划
The more witches he found, the more he’d be paid.
找到的巫师越多 拿到的钱越多
He even wrote a book about it, a sort of beginner’s guide,
他甚至写了一本关于初学者指南的书
which included a number of surefire ways of identifying witches,
包括了一系列可靠的方法来识别女巫
like spotting a devil’s mark,
比如发现魔鬼的痕迹
a mole or birthmark.
痣或胎记
In 1647, Hopkins plied his trade
1647年 霍普金斯将他可怕的事业
on a gruesome journey from Cambridge to Ely.
从剑桥一路延续到伊利
He picked off witches along the way.
他沿途猎杀女巫
In May, Hopkins reached the small village of Stretham.
5月 霍普金斯到达了斯特里厄姆的小村庄
Here, Margaret Moore was arrested
玛格丽特·摩尔在这里被逮捕了
after three farmers blamed her for misfortunes they’d suffered.
因为三个农民把他们遭受的不幸归咎于她的身上
She confessed to being a witch, quite probably after being tortured.
她很可能是在被折磨之后才承认自己是个女巫
Accused of having surrendered her soul to the devil,
她被指控把灵魂交给了魔鬼
she was tried and convicted.
并被审判和定罪
Margaret Moore was hanged here on the green in front of Ely Cathedral.
玛格里特·摩尔在伊利大教堂前的这片草地上被处以绞刑
With books like Hopkins’s spreading stories of witchcraft,
因为有类似霍普金斯传播的巫术故事这种书籍
over the course of a century-and-a-half,
一个半世纪以来
some 40,000 people, mostly women,
4万多人 大部分是女性
were put to death on bogus charges.
以莫须有的罪名被处死

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