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面临着诸多挑战的冬季运动能否存活?

Winter sports are facing many challenges. Can they survive? | The Economist

滑雪运动在走下坡路吗?
Winter sports are under threat.
冬季运动面临着威胁
The multi-billion dollar industry…
价值数十亿美元的冬季运动产业
…the livelihood for many mountain communities,
和众多山区居民的生计
faces a double problem.
面临着一个双重问题
The popularity of skiing and snowboarding is declining in the rich world.
在发达国家 单板和双板滑雪人气渐减
and resorts are having to cope with a warming climate.
滑雪场还要应对变暖的气候
This luxury hotel is the birthplace of winter sports.
这家豪华酒店是冬季运动的诞生地
Welcome to the Kulm Hotel in St Moritz, Switzerland.
欢迎来到瑞士圣莫里茨库尔姆酒店
In the 19th century,
19世纪时
Switzerland was a popular summer destination for English tourists.
对英国旅客来说 瑞士曾是人气夏季旅游胜地
The owner of the Kulm at the time…
当时库尔姆酒店的主人
…Johannes Badrutt, wanted to fill his hotel all year round.
Johannes Badrutt想让酒店四季都生意红火
Nobody came in winter.
冬天没人入住
The people were afraid of avalanches, of cold.
人们害怕雪崩和寒冷
So in 1864 he made a whisky-fuelled wager with some English guests.
于是在1864年 他和一些英国旅客趁着威士忌酒兴下了个赌注
We are in front of this fireplace where the famous bet was done.
这场著名的赌注就是在我们面前的壁炉前完成的
The last English guests were about to leave
最后一批英国旅客即将离开酒店时
and he offered if they come in winter and they like it…
他提出 如果英国旅客冬天前来 并且满意的话
…they could stay as long as they want.
他们想住多久就住多久
If they didn’t like it,
如果旅客对居住不满意
he would reimburse them all the travel expenses.
他就报销所有的旅游费用
The Englishmen returned for Christmas
英国人在圣诞期间回到了该酒店
And became so hooked on snow pursuits that they stayed for three months.
然后对雪地追逐太过入迷 就待了三个月
Soon, others followed and winter holidays were born.
不久后 其他人也跟着冬季入住 寒假由此诞生
Along with their tweed suits and pinafores,
英国宾客带着粗花呢套装和无袖连衣裙
the English guests brought their love of competition.
怀揣着对竞赛的热爱到达了瑞士
With the post-war economic boom
伴随着二战后的经济繁荣
and the introduction of mechanised ski-lifts in the 1960s,
以及1960年代机械化滑雪缆车的引进
winter sports soon became all the rage.
冬季运动很快就流行起来
Fashionable ski-suits appeared on the slopes.
滑雪缆车上出现了时尚的滑雪服
And while the style of the time was questionable,
尽管当时的时尚风格不太能接受
the industry brought wealth to poor mountain valleys.
滑雪产业的兴起 给贫困的山区带来了财富
But these days the outlook is darkening.
而现如今 该产业的前景越发暗淡
Skiers in rich countries are gradually leaving the sport,
富裕国家的滑雪者逐渐抛弃冬季运动
and younger people are less inclined to take it up.
年轻人则更加不愿意参与其中
Many head to cheaper, hotter destinations for winter sun.
许多人前往价格更低廉 气温更高的胜地享受冬日阳光
In the last ten years,
在过去的十年中
the number of skiers in the world’s major ski destinations has fallen.
全球主要滑雪胜地的滑雪者人数有所下滑
Locals here are worried.
这里的本地居民发了愁
Ladies and gentlemen, we now welcome the British team.
女士们先生们 现在欢迎英国队
The team is ready for start, the run is clear, let’s go!
英国队预备 赛道无障碍 出发!
For St Moritz and other mountain towns like it,
对于圣莫里茨和其他此类山城来说
winter sports are essential to people’s livelihoods.
冬季运动是居民生计的基石
St Moritz would not be the same without winter sport.
少了冬季运动的圣莫里茨会失去昔日荣光
It is very important for the local economy.
冬季运动对当地经济十分重要
They have a lot of jobs.
居民们从事着很多相关工作
It’s very important for the local people.
冬季运动对当地人来说也相当重要
Another major worry is the warming climate.
另外一个主要的担忧则是气候变暖
Since pre-industrial times, average global temperatures have risen by one degree.
自前工业时代起 全球平均气温已经上升了1℃
But the Alps are well above average.
但阿尔卑斯山的气温升幅却远高于1℃
Temperatures here have risen by two degrees.
这里的气温已经上升了2℃
In the Swiss town of Davos,
在瑞士达沃斯的一个小镇
scientists have been measuring the amount of snowfall,
科学家们近一百年来持续测量着
and the depth of the snowpack for nearly a century.
降雪量与积雪厚度
The snow season starts later and it ends earlier,
雪季来临得更晚了 结束得更早了
so that means the duration of snow cover is getting shorter.
也就意味着积雪期在缩短
Even though there was a lot of snow in Davos this year,
尽管今年达沃斯的降雪量较多
long-term trends show snowfall has been declining for decades.
但长期趋势下 其降雪量几十年来一直在下降
And the depth of the snowpack has been thinning since the 1950s.
积雪的厚度自1950年代以来也一直在变薄
Ski resorts have responded to the problem
滑雪胜地对于气候变暖的应对措施是
by investing heavily in snowmaking machines.
斥巨资于造雪机
If there is less and less natural snow,
如果天然雪越来越少
it means the lower elevated ski resort gets in trouble.
地势较低的滑雪胜地就会陷入困境
Currently, they invest a lot in the production of artificial snow.
现在 他们在人工造雪上的斥资量很大
Artificial snow uses a lot of power and water.
人工造雪会消耗大量能源和水
It’s clear that there will be less snow in the future.
显而易见的是 未来的雪量会更少
The question is just how much less and how fast this process goes.
问题只在于变少的量与速度
In some places, snowmaking has allowed resorts to extend the ski season.
在一些地方 造雪延长了滑雪胜地的滑雪季节
But in a warming climate, resorts will increasingly look like this.
但随着气候变暖 滑雪场会变得越来越像这样
Many may close by the end of the century
很多滑雪场会由于天然雪不够
because they will not have enough natural snow,
于本世纪末停止运营
and they will be too warm even to make artificial snow.
并且气温会高到无法人工造雪
Take this region of the eastern Alps,
以阿尔卑斯山东部的这个地区为例
scientists calculate that if temperatures increase by two degrees,
科学家们估计 如果气温上升2℃
about 15% of resorts may have to give up on skiing.
约15%的滑雪胜地可能就要放弃滑雪产业
If temperatures rise by four degrees, 60% may be forced to close.
如果气温上升4℃ 就会有60%被迫停运
The big hope for winter sports now lies in Asia.
如今冬季运动的希望落在了亚洲
Here in Pyeongchang, South Korea, they are hosting this year’s Winter Olympics.
在韩国平昌 人们正在举办今年的冬奥会
The popularity of this year’s Games and the next here in China in 2022
今年的冬奥会 和2022年在中国举办的下一届
will be crucial to attracting new enthusiasts to the sport.
其人气对于吸引新的冬季运动爱好者来说很关键
China and South Korea are both cold in winter,
中国和韩国的冬天都冷
but neither Olympic venue has much natural snow.
但两地的奥运会场天然雪都不多
Yet the organisers here are confident the Games will be a success.
但这里的筹办人员对成功办奥仍有信心
South Korea in the winter time is actually the dry season,
韩国的冬季其实气候很干燥
however the Pyeongchang region at 700 metres above sea level
而有着700米海拔高度的平昌
is perfect to make artificial snow.
是完美的人工造雪地点
The snow quality will be up at the Olympic level.
雪的质量将达到奥运会标准
In Chinese ski resorts, such as this one in Chongli district,
在中国的滑雪胜地 比如崇礼的这个滑雪场
winter sports is already booming.
冬季运动已经在蓬勃发展
The number of skiers and snowboarders is increasing by about 20% a year.
单板和双板滑雪者人数每年增加约20%
It is estimated that nearly 500 new resorts
据估计 中国将在2022年冬奥会之前
will be built in China ahead of the 2022 Winter Games.
新建近500所滑雪场
In 1864 Johannes Badrutt made a gamble that paid off.
1864年Johannes Badrutt下的赌注收到了回报
The Kulm Hotel has remained a favourite destination for wealthy winter-sports fans.
库尔姆酒店一直是富裕冬季运动爱好者的最爱胜地
St Moritz is high up in the Alps,
圣莫里茨位于阿尔卑斯山高处
so the fun is likely to continue for decades to come.
因此滑雪的快乐可能会再延续几十年
But even here, they’ll have to rely more heavily on snow cannon.
但就算在这里 人们也会越来越依赖雪炮
That’s expensive, and the cost will be passed on to the skiers,
雪炮成本很高 而这项成本会转移到滑雪者身上
making the sport even more expensive and exclusive.
让冬季运动更加昂贵且高端
On top of this, power-hungry snow cannon produce more greenhouse gases,
除此之外 高能耗的雪炮会产生更多的温室气体
those will add to global warming,
会加剧全球变暖
that’s melting the snow and ice.
全球变暖又导致冰雪融化

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视频概述

由瑞士一家酒店和英国客人打下的赌注而诞生的冬季运动,曾风靡一时。今天,冬季运动为何前景暗淡?受到重重威胁挑战的滑雪胜地能生存下去吗?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

亿珀

审核员

审核员LR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZMawINwtJg

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