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温迪戈:美洲土著传说中的食肉怪物 – 译学馆
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温迪戈:美洲土著传说中的食肉怪物

Windigo: The Flesh-Eating Monster of Native American Legend

It stalks the woods during the coldest and harshest months of the year,
在一年中天气最冷最恶劣的几个月里
plagued with an insatiable hunger.
它饥肠辘辘地在树林中游荡
Of immense size and speed,
体格庞大 行动敏捷
the Windigo monster of Native American lore
它就是印第安传说中的怪物温迪戈
has become one of the most notorious flesh-eaters of all time.
是史上最臭名昭著的食肉怪物之一
The Windigo legend teaches us about Native American spiritual beliefs and social values,
温迪戈的传说体现了印第安人的精神信仰和社会价值观
and has three major symbolic interpretations:
包含三种象征性含义:
the incarnation of winter, the embodiment of hunger,
冬天的化身 饥饿的代表
and the personification of selfishness, both spiritual and physical.
以及精神和物质方面自私自利的表现
And thennnn there’s cannibalism.
此外 它们还嗜食人类
I am Dr. Emilly Zarqa. And this is Monstrum
我是艾米丽·扎克博士 这里是《怪物理论》
The Windigo has clawed its way into popular culture,
温迪戈已经在流行文化中闯出了一片天地
appearing in TV shows like Supernatural
出现在诸如《邪恶力量》
and Charmed, and Marvel comics.
《圣女魔咒》和《漫威》等影视作品中
It’s terrorized audiences in movies
并给不少观众留下了心理阴影
This…Indian scout…told me a curious story. Windigo.
这个印第安侦查员给我讲了一个离奇故事——温迪戈
It’s an old Indian myth from the north
这是一个来自北方的古老印第安传说
and video games.
以及电子游戏里
Damn…Run…Run!
真见鬼……跑……快跑!
and even a My Little Pony episode.
甚至在《小马宝莉》的剧集中
What is that… thing?
那究竟是什么东西?
It must be Windigos!
那一定是温迪戈!
Windigos??!
温迪戈??!
I feel confident saying that this creature’s gone mainstream.
我肯定地说这种生物已成为一种主流文化
But almost all of these portrayals fail to capture the complete history
但几乎所有这些描绘都没有介绍温迪戈的完整历史
or even the original traits, of the Windigo.
有的甚至连它的原始特征都不清楚
The Windigo legend originates with indigenous people
温迪戈起源于土著人的传说
who belong to the Algonquian language family.
他们的语言隶属于阿尔冈琴语系
They say it’s a giant humanoid cannibal
他们说那是一种巨大的人型食人怪物
who can move at an incredibly fast speed.
拥有难以置信的移动速度
The Windigo is astonishingly tall, with razor-sharp teeth and claws,
它的身高惊人 有着锋利的牙齿和爪子
and lips that are often chewed ragged, or gone completely.
嘴唇经常被自己嚼的破破烂烂 或者干脆就没了
They have a heart made of ice
它们心性冷酷
and despite their unending hunger for human flesh, they remain emaciated.
尽管贪食人类的血肉 它们仍旧骨瘦如柴
It shrieks, and can run across tree tops
它们尖叫着 在树梢间来回穿梭
and its presence may be preceded by a foul odor,
而且往往未见其身形 先闻其恶臭
or a sudden snow storm.
或紧随一场突然的暴风雪而来
Almost all Windigos begin as humans,
几乎所有的温迪戈原本都是人类
and once transformed it has no gender
而且一旦变化就没有性别之分了
But how does one become a Windigo?
但是一个人怎么会变成温迪戈呢?
The most common way is by eating human flesh,
最常见的方法是吃人肉
but there are others, including dreaming of the Windigo.
但也有别的方法 包括梦见温迪戈
It is also believed that you can become a Windigo without physically transforming.
人们还认为 变成温迪戈的人不一定伴有外形改变
Someone who is in a state of inner turmoil might be at risk of becoming one.
一个心智混乱的人就有这样的风险
Some communities believe it can be caused by a spiritual imbalance,
有些人认为它可能由精神失衡引起
or by choosing to prioritize the self over the community.
或者选择让自我凌驾于社会之上
Since the lore of the Algonquian peoples is largely shared through oral tradition,
因为阿尔冈琴人的传说大多是口耳相承
there are several variations of the Windigo.
所以温迪戈的传说存在多种版本
But the origins of the legend undoubtedly began with the indigenous tribes
但肯定的是 这个传说起源于
that lived in the northern woodlands, Atlantic Coast, and Great Lakes regions .
北部林地 大西洋海岸和五大湖地区的土著部落
The Algonquian language family is one of the largest native linguistic groups in North America
阿尔冈琴语系是北美最大的本土语言群族之一
and includes these groups among others.
其中还包括这些语族
Because of this widespread distribution,
由于区域分部广
the Windigo has many names, spellings, and pronunciations.
温迪戈有许多不同的名称 拼写法和发音
There are more than 37 names for it that begin with “w”.
其首字母为“w”的发音就超过37种
Here we use the spelling that more accurately reflects the Cree and Ojibwe pronunciations,
我们现在使用的拼写更接近克里语和奥吉布瓦语发音
and the one that appears more commonly in indigenous-authored texts.
这种版本更常见于本土作家的作品中
Regardless of how it’s spelled,
不管词汇怎样拼写
there is something that can help explain the Windigo legend—climate and geography.
它能够从气候和地理方面辅助解释温迪戈的传说
All of the communities that share the Windigo myth experience long, harsh winters.
所有流传着温迪戈传说的部族都忍受着漫长而严寒的冬天
With heavy snowfall, freezing temperatures, and a lack of resources,
由于暴雪 严寒以及资源匮乏
the fear of starvation was a very real thing.
对饥饿的恐惧是很现实的事情
This encourages people to stick together
这促使人们聚集在一起
both a practical and necessary means of survival.
这是一种既实际又必要的生存手段
The Windigo, on the other hand, thrives in the winter and can travel in blizzards.
反观温迪戈 既能冬天蓬勃生长 也能暴雪中穿行
It hunts for those who are separated from the group or who leave the safety of their homes.
它们捕杀那些离群索居 远离了安全区的人类
The threat of cannibalism is embodied by the Windigo.
温迪戈给人类带来了被捕食的威胁
Fear is a powerful motivator,
恐惧是一种强大的动力
and this story spooked people into sharing food resources during the winter,
传说迫使人们在冬季里共享食物
and preparing adequate food storages during the rest of the year.
并且在一年剩余的时间里储备丰富的食物
So, ya know, you wouldn’t have to venture out into that blizzard
因此 你懂的 你就不必冒险进入暴风雪
and get eaten by a shrieking Windigo.
不用担心被发出尖叫声的温迪戈吃掉了
The first written mention of the Windigo occurred in 17th-century Jesuit records
温迪戈的首次文字记载出现在17世纪的耶稣会记录上
which coincides with Europeans entering into the fur trade.
当时恰逢欧洲人发起皮毛贸易
The North American fur trade boom in the 18th and 19th centuries
18和19世纪北美皮毛贸易的繁荣
meant even more trappers were traveling to present-day Canada.
意味着将有更多的人前往那里 即现在的加拿大
The claws and vicious appetite of the Windigo,
拥有利爪和邪恶食欲
along with the idea that a human could transform into one,
以及人类可能变成温迪戈的观念
reminded the Europeans of a similar legend of their own—the werewolf.
使欧洲人想起了他们自己的传说——狼人
Through trade, community, and marriage,
通过贸易 社交和婚姻
a cross-cultural exchange of ideas, including monsters, occurred.
包括怪物在内的一种跨文化交流出现了
A Jesuit priest compared the European monster to the windigo’s similar canine hunger
一位牧师将这种欧洲怪物和温迪戈的贪食相比较
saying it, ” makes them so ravenous for human flesh that they pounce upon women,
认为它们如此渴求人类的血肉 以致扑倒女人
children, and even men, like veritable werewolves, and devour them voraciously. “
孩子甚至男人 像真正的狼人一样 贪婪地咬噬他们
With associations like that, it makes sense how these two legendary creatures overlap today.
由于这样的联系 现今这两种传说中的怪物有所重叠就说得通了
And why most modern depictions of the Windigo vary wildly from the original.
但为什么现代对温迪戈的描述与起初的大相径庭
You might have seen the Windigo depicted as a stag-human hybrid,
你可能见过它被描绘成人鹿混合体
a human with antlers, or even with ram horns for ears.
长着鹿角的人 甚至把公羊角当做耳朵
There is no evidence of this in all the Algonquian [AL-gon-ki-en] peoples versions.
这在阿尔冈琴人的传说中完全找不到依据
The only animal the Windigo is associated with in some stories is the owl.
在一些故事里 唯一与温迪戈有联系的动物是猫头鹰
In fact, ” windigo” can translate as ” owl” or ” cannibal” depending on the dialect.
事实上 根据方言 “温迪戈”可以被译作“猫头鹰”或“食人者”
Which kind of makes sense given that owls do eat flesh and are often seen as omens of death.
考虑到猫头鹰确实吃肉而且常常被视为死亡的预兆 就有点说得通了
The image of the antlered-windigo seen in Hannibal
《汉尼拔》中的鹿角温迪戈形象
and Pet Sematary
和《宠物屠宰场》中的形象
actually originates in the film Wendigo.
实际上就来源于电影《温迪戈》
The director Larry Fessenden merged a story he was told as a child
导演拉里·费森登把他小时候听过的故事
with the Scary Stories to Tell in the Dark version of the Windigo,
融入了温迪戈版的《黑暗恐怖故事》
itself adapted from another author’s interpretation.
电影改编自另一位作者的作品
Fessenden admits that he didn’t even do research on the Windigo until after he made the movie.
他承认直到电影拍完他都没有做过关于温迪戈的调查
But the image is so foreign and striking
但这个形象是如此的陌生和引人注目
it continues to appear in movies, art, and other pop culture texts.
它继续出现在电影 艺术和其他流行文化作品中
The Windigo has also appeared in another venue—the courtroom.
温迪戈还曾出现在另一个地方——法庭
In 1897, a ” windigo killing” trial became a landmark case for early Canadian law when
1897年 对温迪戈谋杀案的审判成为了早期加拿大法律的里程碑
an Ojibwe man was found guilty of manslaughter
该案中 一名奥吉布瓦族男子因射杀一名
for shooting someone he believed to be a Windigo.
他坚信是温迪戈的人而犯过失杀人罪
In his culture, killing a Windigo was acceptable.
在他的文化里 杀死温迪戈是合理的
But his court conviction confirmed that Canadian common law applied to indigenous communities,
但他的法庭判决证实了加拿大普通法适用于土著社区
even if they had no knowledge of its existence.
即使他们并不了解温迪戈的存在
In the late 19th and early 20thcenturies, a handful of other indigenous people were
19世纪末20世纪初 还有其他一些土著人
similarly convicted of murder for killing people they deemed windigos.
因杀死他们认为是温迪戈的人而被判定为谋杀
Windigos showed up in another unlikely place—psychiatry.
温迪戈还出现在另一个难以置信的地方——精神病院
In the 1920s and 30s,
在20世纪二三十年代
” windigo psychosis” , a ” cultural-bound mental illness”
“温迪戈精神病”是一种“与文化相关的精神疾病”
was said to be a disorder that drove people to cannibalism or cannibalistic thoughts.
据说是一种驱使人们吃人或产生同类相食想法的疾病
But in the 1970s this diagnosis was brought into question
但在20世纪70年代 这一诊断受到了质疑
and no subject with the supposed condition has ever been studied.
而且从未有人研究过具有这种假设条件的受试者
Today most scholars reject it completely.
当今大部分学者都反对这种诊断
Like all monsters, we need to recognize the origins of the creature
像所有的怪物一样 我们需要认识这种生物的起源
even as it continues to change and grow in other traditions.
即使它在其他传统中不断变化和成长
Whether it’s the Hulk battling a Yeti-esque Windigo in the woods,
无论是和耶提式温迪戈在树林中战斗的绿巨人
or finding the cure to tuberculosis in human flesh
还是发现人体内结核杆菌的治疗方法
greater significance, and arguably enjoyment,
在认知生物的最初目的过程中
can be found by recognizing the creature’s original purpose.
我们可以获得更大的意义和享受
The Windigo is largely popular today because it represents a violation of a human code
温迪戈在当代大受欢迎是因为它代表了一种反人类的行为
don’t kill one another, and certainly don’t eat them if you do.
禁止自相残杀 即使杀人但不能食人
But it’s more than that.
但是温迪戈不止于此
The Windigo is a warning about what could happen
温迪戈是一种可能的预警
when an individual forgoes the collective for their own survival.
当个体生存需求凌驾于集体之上时会发生什么
The Windigo is above all a lesson in excess and a manifestation of the anxieties
温迪戈是一种极端的训诫和焦虑的表现
that emerge in the harsh realities of winter—and how to survive it.
当面临严酷的冬天 如何生存下去
Hint, don’t eat other people.
提示 禁止同类相食
Do you have a favorite monster?
你有自己最喜欢的怪物吗?
Let me know in the comments!
在评论里留言告诉我!
And don’t forget to subscribe!
别忘了订阅!

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视频概述

伴随冬天而来的不只有暴雪,还有生存的危机

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

仙人球

审核员

审核员YQ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guiuXIMZ2vE

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