未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

海里的鱼会绝迹吗?

Will the ocean ever run out of fish? - Ayana Elizabeth Johnson and Jennifer Jacquet

鱼类正在面临危机
Fish are in trouble.
上世纪90年代 加拿大东海岸的鳕鱼数量急剧减少
The cod population of Canada’s East Coast collapsed in the 1990s,
激烈的娱乐以及商业捕鱼
intense recreational and commercial fishing
使弗罗里达州南部的歌利亚石斑鱼数量大幅度下降
has decimated goliath grouper populations in South Florida,
而且 金枪鱼数量也骤降50%以上
and most populations of tuna have plummeted by over 50%,
南亚特兰大州的蓝鳍金枪鱼正濒临灭绝
with the Southern Atlantic bluefin on the verge of extinction.
这些 只是众多例子中的几个
Those are just a couple of many examples.
全球都在发生过度捕捞
Overfishing is happening all over the world.
这是如何发生的呢
How did this happen?
当有些人想到钓鱼
When some people think of fishing,
就会想象在船上惬意 耐心地沉浸在一天的捕捞中
they imagine relaxing in a boat and patiently reeling in the day’s catch.
但在那种为供应海产品的工业捕捞
But modern industrial fishing, the kind that stocks our grocery shelves,
看起来更像是战争
looks more like warfare.
事实上 他们使用的科技的是为战争而开发的
In fact, the technologies they employ were developed for war.
雷达
Radar,
声呐
sonar,
直升机
helicopters,
和侦察机
and spotter planes
都用于工业船只导向日趋逐渐减少的鱼群
are all used to guide factory ships towards dwindling schools of fish.
成百上千的鱼钩或长长的线条连接的巨大渔网
Long lines with hundreds of hooks or huge nets
围捕大量的鱼 以及其它物种
round up massive amounts of fish, along with other species,
如海鸟 海龟和海豚
like seabirds, turtles, and dolphins.
捕捞到的鱼被拖到
And fish are hauled up onto giant boats,
装备有速冻和加工设备的巨型船只上
complete with onboard flash freezing and processing facilities.
这些技术都使我们能够在
All of these technologies have enabled us to catch fish at greater depths
比以往更深 更远的海域捕鱼
and farther out at sea than ever before.
因而随着捕鱼海域的深度和远程扩大
And as the distance and depth of fishing have expanded,
我们达到了鱼类多样性提升的目标
so has the variety of species we target.
例如 直到二十世纪70年代 渔民才发现
For example, the Patagonian toothfish neither sounds nor looks very appetizing.
巴塔哥尼亚齿鱼不仅安静 看起来还很美味
And fishermen ignored it until the late 1970s.
之后它被改名为智利鲈鱼 销售给美国厨师
Then it was rebranded and marketed to chefs in the U.S. as Chilean sea bass,
尽管 这种动物实际上也是鳕鱼的一种
despite the animal actually being a type of cod.
很快它就突然在世界各地市场引起风潮
Soon it was popping up in markets all over the world
现在成为一道美食
and is now a delicacy.
不幸的是 这些深海鱼至少在十岁以后
Unfortunately, these deep water fish don’t reproduce
才能繁殖
until they’re at least ten years old,
这使它们极易被过度捕捞
making them extremely vulnerable to overfishing
这些还没长大的鱼在能产卵前就被捕捞
when the young are caught before they’ve had the chance to spawn.
消费者口味和价格也可能会产生消极影响
Consumer taste and prices can also have harmful effects.
例如 在中国和越南 鱼翅汤被视为珍馐美食
For example, shark fin soup is considered such a delicacy in China and Vietnam
以致于鲨鱼的鱼鳍成了利润最高的鲨鱼部位
that the fin has become the most profitable part of the shark.
这导致许多渔民大量猎捕鲨鱼
This leads many fishermen to fill their boats with fins
获取满船的鱼鳍 留下数百万的鲨鱼尸体
leaving millions of dead sharks behind.
这些问题并非只有齿鱼和鲨鱼才如此
The problems aren’t unique to toothfish and sharks.
世界上几乎有31%的鱼群被过度捕捞
Almost 31% of the world’s fish populations are overfished,
有58%处于最大可持续水平的捕捞量
and another 58% are fished at the maximum sustainable level.
野生鱼繁殖速度比不上70亿人吃它们的速度
Wild fish simply can’t reproduce as fast as 7 billion people can eat them.
捕捞也影响到更广阔的生态系统
Fishing also has impacts on broader ecosystems.
沿着海底撒下一个足球场地那么大的空间
Wild shrimp are typically caught by dragging nets the size of a football field
通常可以捕捞野生虾
along the ocean bottom,
却扰乱或破坏海底栖息地
disrupting or destroying seafloor habitats.
捕鱼量往往如5%的虾一样小
The catch is often as little as 5% shrimp.
捕捞附带的不需要的动物 死了被丢回海里
The rest is by-catch, unwanted animals that are thrown back dead.
沿海地区虾的养殖也好不到哪去
And coastal shrimp farming isn’t much better.
红树林被推土机摧毁 为给虾养殖腾出空间
Mangroves are bulldozed to make room for shrimp farms,
剥夺了海岸区域的巨大保护和自然水净化系统
robbing coastal communities of storm protection and natural water filtration
以及鱼群重要的培育栖息地
and depriving fish of key nursery habitats.
那么 暂停捕捞 让它们恢复数量会如何呢
So what does it look like to give fish a break and let them recover?
可以采取许多形式的保护
Protection can take many forms.
在国家水域 政府可以限制
In national waters, governments can set limits
如何 何时 何地捕捞 以及捕捞多少数量
about how, when, where, and how much fishing occurs,
限制特定船只和设备
with restrictions on certain boats and equipment.
有害行为 如底部拖网捕鱼 可以一并禁止
Harmful practices, such as bottom trawling, can be banned altogether,
而且我们可以在所有捕捞附近建立海洋保护区
and we can establish marine reserves closed to all fishing
以帮助生态系统恢复
to help ecosystems restore themselves.
消费者对减少浪费做法的意识和抵制也起到作用
There’s also a role for consumer awareness and boycotts to reduce wasteful practices,
如鲨鱼的鱼鳍
like shark finning,
推动渔业朝向更加可持续发展迈进
and push fishing industries towards more sustainable practices.
过去的干涉成功地帮助了所剩无几的鱼群恢复数量
Past interventions have successfully helped depleted fish populations recover.
这里有许多解决方案
There are many solutions.
每个渔业的最佳途径必定视为基于科学
The best approach for each fishery must be considered based on science,
要尊重当地靠海生活的人民
respect for the local communities that rely on the ocean,
以及作为野生动物的鱼类
and for fish as wild animals.
接着就必须实施规则
And then the rules must be enforced.
这通常也需要国际合作
International collaboration is often needed, too,
因为鱼群可不分我们的国界
because fish don’t care about our borders.
我们需要结束过度捕捞
We need to end overfishing.
生态系统
Ecosystems,
食品安全
food security,
工作
jobs,
经济
economies,
以及海岸文化 都依赖渔业
and coastal cultures all depend on it.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

如今到处都是过度捕捞,我们该采取措施啦!Ayana Elizabeth Johnson and Jennifer Jacquet

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

我乐意

审核员

DY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNdR808jMSA

相关推荐