ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

双语会使人变得更聪明吗? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

双语会使人变得更聪明吗?

Will Learning Another Language Make You Smarter?

首先感谢CuriosityStream对本期节目的赞助!
Thanks for CuriosityStream for supportingthis episode!
了解更多就在CuriosityStream.com/Psych
Go to CuriosityStream.com/Psych to learn more
[音乐]
[ ♪INTRO ]
科学秀(心理)
家长们曾被警告不要在抚养孩子过程中
Parents were once warned against raising children
使用两种以上语言
to speak more than one language.
他们被告知那对孩子的认知发展不好
It’s bad for kid’s cognitive development, they were told,
会导致智商低 成绩差
and will result in bad grades and a lower IQ!
而且这一荒谬说法仍在不断被提起
And that ridiculous claim is still sometimes repeated,
尤其在美国 也就是这里
especially here in the United States.
但时代已经发生了很大变化
But times have mostly changed.
现在 如果你还相信像这样的头条
Now, if you believe the headlines,
双语环境能让你更聪明更有创造力
being bilingual makes you smarter and more creative.
这可不是空穴来风
And those headlines don’t come from nowhere.
有研究表明
There is research which suggests
双语确实能让人获得认知优势
that bilingualism provides some specific cognitive advantages.
你不能把这归咎于媒体报道
And you can hardly blame the press for covering these studies,
因为它是如此夺人眼球
because it’s such an appealing idea:
让你的孩子学学法语 他将会更优秀!
teach your child French and you geta better child!
更有创造力 更能一心多用
more creativity, multitasking,
在其他学科的表现更好 这都是随之带来的好处
and academic performance in other subjectsall for free!
但如果那听起来太理想而不实际
But if that sounds too good to be true,
确实是这样
that’s because it is.
虽然也有研究说双语没有带来好处
You see, there are also studies that don’tfind an advantage.
但那些并没有受到同样的关注
Those don’t get the same excited coverage.
既然这样
In this case, though,
虽然媒体并不是真正的罪魁祸首
the media aren’t really the ones to blame.
当谈到双语对大脑的影响时
When it comes to the effects of bilingualism on
科学界也存在困惑和偏见
the brain, there’s confusion and bias on the scientific side, too.
而所有这些都只是为了说明
And it all goes to show just how hard it
理解头脑中究竟发生了什么有多困难
can be to understand what really goes on in our heads.
毋庸置疑学习另一种语言
Learning another language definitely has benefits
肯定有好处
that’s no one can argue with —
比如 你会多懂得一门语言!
like, for example, you’ll know another language!
而且它会在其他方面使你的大脑受益
And it even makes sense that it could benefit your brain in other ways.
主要的好处体现在执行能力上
The main benefit is thought to be to executive functions —
即操纵复杂认知工作的能力
the processes that control complex cognitive tasks
像注意力 解决问题 计划性等
like attention, problem solving,planning, and so on.
而且这个假设不是没道理的
And that hypothesis isn’t unreasonable.
这些过程有点像肌肉
It’s thought that these processes are kind of like muscles —
你用得越多
the more you use them,
肌肉就越发达
the better you get at them.
研究表明
And research has found that
各种认知挑战活动都能提高执行能力
all sorts of cognitively challenging activities improve executive functions.
比如玩电子游戏能提高你评估风险和下注的能力
Like, playing video games can make you better at assessing risks and placing bets.
音乐培训能提高你集中精力在具体工作上的能力
And music training can improve your ability to focus on specific tasks.
因此两种或以上语言在你头脑中切换
Since juggling two or more languages in your brain
在很多方面都是挑战认知的
is cognitively challenging in a lot of ways,
它同样会有积极影响
it could have similar positive effects.
比如不断切换词汇
Constantly switching between vocabularies
能让你更好地同时胜任多重工作
could help you be a better multitasker, for example.
它也让你的大脑更好地完成
if it made you generally better
快速从一件事到另一件事的思维跳跃
at quickly shifting your brain from one thing to another.
但不止一个研究分析发现
But more than one analysis of the research has found
这些益处存在的证据
that the evidence for such benefits
是薄弱且矛盾的
is weak and inconsistent.
比如2015年《Cortex》期刊中一篇综述声称
For example, a 2015 review in the journal Cortex concluded that
持续四年多的研究中有80%以上的测试
over 80 % of the tests conducted over four years of studies
没有表明双语存在优势
don’t show a bilingual advantage.
综述中的研究方法也存在严重问题
Those that did had serious problems with their methodology —
比如样本过少
like, they had small sample sizes
或对照不合理
or inadequate controls.
而在已出版的关于双语的研究中
But there’s a more foundational problem
有个更基本的问题:
with the published research on bilingualism:
发表的并不是全部的研究
it doesn’t tell the whole story.
这个问题在2014年《心理学》期刊上
This was pointed out by a study
发表的一项研究中提出
published in 2014 in the journal Psychological Science.
研究者们首先回顾了1999至2013年
The researchers started by looking at the research presented
各次会议论坛上发布的研究
at conferences from 1999 to 2013.
大约一半报告
Roughly half these presentations
发现了一些双语的优势而另一半没有
found some advantage for bilingualism and half didn’t.
随后他们又看了最终发表在期刊上的研究
Then they looked at which ended up getting published in journals,
发现了一些惊人的事实
and found something striking:
肯定结论的研究中68%都发表了
68 % of the positive studies got published,
而否定结论的只有29%
while only 29 % of the negative ones did.
发表的和未发表的研究
The published and unpublished studies didn’t
在样本量 实验方法
consistently differ based on sample size,
或统计效力上都不一致
experimental tests used, or statistical power.
无论工作质量如何
A study simply had a better chance of getting published
如果一项研究支持双语环境能提高人的认知
if it supported the idea that bilingualism gives people a cognitive boost,
那么这项研究就有很大可能被发表
and a worse chance of getting published if it showed the opposite,
如果结论是否定的则被发表的几率就很低
regardless of the quality of thework.
这一现象被称作出发表偏倚
This is a phenomenon known as publication bias,
这并不是这一情况独有的
and it’s not unique to this situation,
也不是心理学领域独有的
it’s not unique to psychology.
它是所有领域的科学家都要普遍应对的问题
It’s a pervasive issue scientists from all fields are grappling with
因为这样能破坏阳性结果研究的影响
because it can undermine the research that is published.
例如 2018年一项对150多例成人研究的综合分析
For example, a 2018 meta-analysis of over 150 studies on adults
发现双语者某些执行能力确实略好一些
did find bilinguals were slightly better at some executive functions.
但当研究者纠正发表偏倚时
But those advantages disappeared
这些优势都消失了
when the researchers corrected for publication bias.
现在 需要强调的是
Now, it’s important to point out
所有这些研究都没有证明
that none of this amounts to proof that
双语不会带来认知优势
there are no cognitive advantages to bilingualism.
但如果真是这样 无疑也要进行更多工作
But it’s clearly going to take a lot more work
来证明它是否有
to figure out if there are, and if so,
从你大脑的角度看
whether any of them are unique —
学日语是否基本上和玩我的世界一样
or if studying Japanese is basically the same as playing Minecraft,
或说是否有哪个是不寻常的
from your brain’s perspective.
这同样适用于另一种关于双语经常提到的言论
This also applies to another often-repeatedclaim about bilingualism:
它能推迟痴呆的发生
that it can delay the onset of dementia.
同样的 这个观点第一眼看似合理
Again, the idea seems reasonable at first glance,
因为其他复杂的认知活动
as other complex cognitive activities
确实能防止或延缓痴呆
do seem to prevent or delay dementia.
但2015年的一篇文献综述发现
But, a 2015 review of the literature found that
双语对痴呆的延缓效果是非常不稳定的
the effects of bilingualism on dementia are very inconsistent.
而这也不是全部的研究
And that’s not all.
研究方法中有很多令人质疑的环节
There were some suspicious patterns in theresearch methods.
要知道 预期的研究
You see, prospective studies —
是人们表现出症状前让他们加入
the ones that enroll people before they show symptoms
然后随年龄增长对他们进行测试
and then test them as they age —
趋于不体现双语的影响
tended not to show an effect of bilingualism.
回顾性研究中大多数发现的是
Positive results were mostly found in retrospective studies,
对确诊后的人进行调查的肯定结论
which look at people after they’ve been diagnosed.
那类研究中的被试者也许不能
Subjects in that kind of study may not be representative
代表所有人群
of the whole population,
而且更难选择合适的对照组
and it’s harder to pick good controls.
这些都说明了研究者很可能
That all suggests that the researchers might
只在数据中看到他们想要得到的
have been seeing what they wanted in the data,
有成见地只根据他们的期望做出判断
and having their judgement biased by theirexpectations.
所以不仅是对双语的研究
So not only do studies on bilingualism
存在发表偏倚的问题
have issues with publication bias,
很多研究中可能都直接存在偏见
there may be straight-up bias in many of them.
虽然我们还是不了解
And this all means we really don’t know
学习第二语言是否能给你
if learning a second language can give you
一些细微的认知提高
some kind of subtle cognitive advantage
或让你的大脑随年龄增长一直保持灵活
or keep your brain healthy as you age.
但我们仍可以说学习一门语言能让你更聪慧
Still, we can say that learning a language does make you smarter.
不管怎样 你都多知道了些以前不了解的
No matter what, you’ll know something youdidn’t know before.
所以从这种意义上说 它当然能令你更聪明
So in that sense, of course it makes you smarter.
而且就像旧时的说法
And it’s not going to hurt you,
它对你没有坏处
like they thought in the old days.
不只是这一点 随着你的语言更流利
Not only that, with your new fluency,
你能体验全新的文学和艺术体系
you can experience whole new bodies of literature and arts,
去感兴趣的地方旅行 和更多人交流
travel to interesting places, andtalk to more people.
所以 掌握多门语言的能力
So yeah, being able to speak multiple languages
虽然不能间接地激发你的大脑
has lots of benefits,
但依然会带来许多好处
even if it’s not boosting your brain indirectly.
如果环球旅行和体验新事物对你来说很有棒
If the idea of traveling the world and experiencing new things sounds awesome to you,
你应该会对Curiosity Stream的视频感兴趣
I have a feeling you’ll like the videos offered byCuriosity Stream.
CuriosityStream是一个订阅流媒体服务
CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service
提供2400多部来自世界顶级制片人的纪录片
that offers over 2,400 documentaries and non­fiction titles
和非虚构类读物 包括独家原创作品
from some of the world’s best filmmakers, including exclusive originals.
举个例子 如果语言是你的弱项
For example, if languages are your jam,
你可能会喜欢他们的原创纪录片《英语的历史》
you might like their original documentary The History of English.
带你穿越时间横跨全球
It takes you on a trip through time and around the world
理解这一特别的语言
to understand how this particular language
如何成为了“语言之王”
came to be a “linguistic superpower”.
他们还有关于自然 历史 科技
And they have videos on nature, history, technology,
社会和生活的视频
and society and lifestyle, too.
每月只要2.99美元
For as little as $ 2.99 a month,
你就能任意观看
you can get access to all of them.
如果那对你还不够
And if that’s not enough for you,
作为科学秀的狂热观众
as a SciShow Psych viewer,
你可以前31天免费观看
you can get your first 31 days completely free!
你只需要在curiositystream.com/Psych注册
All you have to do is sign up at curiositystream.com/Psych
然后使用优惠码‘psych’
and use the promo code ‘ psych ’,
注册时输入P-S-Y-C-H即可
P-S-Y-C-H during the sign-up process.
[音乐]
[ ♪OUTRO ]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频介绍了多语言学习对人是否有影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Gekko Shea

审核员

审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wf_M5l2y3sM

相关推荐