未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

人类会进化成具有冬眠能力吗?

Will Humans Ever Be Able to Hibernate?

你是否曾在一个寒冷的早上醒来 希望能再睡五分钟?
Ever woken up on a cold morning and wished you had five more minutes in bed?
甚至再睡五天 五个月 五年…
How about five days, months, or years of slumber?
很多研究者也在思考这个问题
Lots of researchers have been contemplating that question too
这并不是一个在实验室忙碌一整天就能解决的问题
And not just after a hard day in the lab.
弄清楚如何让人类冬眠可能会拯救人类的生命
Figuring out how to get humans to hibernate could be a life-saving therapy.
甚至让我们有一天能前往遥远的世界
And maybe even let us travel to distant worlds someday.
粗尾狐猴和硫化氢是两个看似不可能却能帮助我们研究的两样东西
Helping us with this research are two unlikely assistants: fat-tailed lemurs and hydrogen sulfide
硫化氢是一种让腐烂鸡蛋发出“香”味的分子
the molecule that brings you that lovely smell of rotten eggs.
冬眠是一种储存能量的技能 它能让动物在寒冷干燥
Hibernation is an energy-saving strategy that lets animals stick it out through the tough times
食物短缺的季节中存活下来
like cold or dry seasons when less food is available.
所有物种都有冬眠的能力
All kinds of creatures hibernate.
但是冬眠与睡眠不同 睡眠时有脑电波和眼球移动
But it’s not the same as sleep, which has characteristic brainwaves and eye movements.
冬眠更像是一种生命的低速运行 一种长期静止状态
Hibernation is more of a general slowdown – a long period of inactivity
伴随着缓慢的新陈代谢和较低的体温
Combined with lower metabolic rate and body temperature.
一些动物 像北极地松鼠 可以完全失去体温
Some animals, like Arctic ground squirrels, go all out.
它们的核心体温可以降到0℃以下 并且维持整整三周
Their core temperatures can drop below 0° Celsius for three weeks straight.
现在的人类在正常情况下是无法在一段时间内维持低体温的
Now, humans obviously aren’t doing this temporary shut-down thing on a regular basis.
但是也有一些奇闻 关于人进入像冬眠似的昏迷状态
But there have been anecdotal tales of people dropping into a deep hibernation-like stupor
且在极端环境下存活下来
and surviving extreme conditions.
比如 一位日本登山者不幸跌倒 摔坏了臀部且失去了意识
One Japanese hiker, for instance, fell and broke his hip, lost consciousness.
在没有食物和水的情况下在山上存活了24天
And lasted 24 days out on a mountain without any food or water.
遗传学上看 我们似乎有能够冬眠的一切条件
And it looks like, genetically, we probably have everything we need to hibernate.
马达加斯加的粗尾狐猴在旱季时能够一年冬眠长达八个月
Fat-tailed lemurs in Madagascar hibernate for up to eight months a year during the dry season,
靠它们尾巴里储存的脂肪生存
Living off the fat reserves stored in their tails.
它们可能比我们小且毛发多 但是他们也是灵长类动物
They may be smaller and furrier than us, but they’re primates.
我们有97%的基因和它们一样
And we share 97% of our genes.
研究此项目的科学家认为在那另外的3%的基因里
Scientists looking into this don’t think there are special hibernation genes
不存在专门负责冬眠的基因
Hiding in that 3% of DNA that doesn’t overlap.
狐猴似乎可以通过激活或者抑制某些基因来进入冬眠
Instead, lemurs seem to be able to hibernate by controlling which genes are turned on or off.
例如 当狐猴在冬眠时
For example, while they’re slumbering away,
它们通过某种方式增强了用于分解脂肪的基因 减弱了处理碳水化合物的基因
Lemurs somehow turn up genes involved in breaking down fat, and turn down genes that process carbs.
如果研究者可以弄清楚如何通过让基因增强或减弱
If researchers could figure out how to cause human bodies to hibernate,
或者其它不同的方式让人类冬眠 这将会是医学领域非常有用的技术
By dialing up or down, or something completely different, it could be a super useful tool in medicine.
冬眠是指器官低氧工作 呼吸缓慢
Hibernation means organs need less oxygen to function, breathing slows down, and the
心脏低速跳动
heart doesn’t have to pump as fast.
就比如一个人发生了严重的车祸 如果他被调整到冬眠状态
So like, if someone’s in a really bad car crash, they would lose less blood
就不会失去那么多血
If they were put into a hibernation-like state.
而且 由于大量失血而得不到充足氧气的器官
Plus, any organs that wouldn’t be getting enough oxygen because of all that bleeding,
也不需要那么多氧气来保持健康
would need less oxygen to stay healthy.
总而言之 这些器官不会受到那么大的伤害
So, overall, they wouldn’t suffer as much damage.
受重伤的人可以存活更久 这会给急救人员
Severely injured people could stay alive longer, and it would give emergency responders
更多时间赶到医院
More time to get to a medical center.
所以 如果我们真的与狐猴非常接近 我们是有冬眠的能力的
So, if we’re really like lemurs, and our hibernation potential is just lying dormant
那么我们要怎么开发出来呢?
within us, how could we coax it out?
可能的答案之一 就是硫化氢
It turns out that one possible solution is hydrogen sulfide.
没错 这种和烂鸡蛋一样难闻的化学物质可能会帮助我们冬眠
That’s right, the chemical that stinks like rotten eggs could help us hibernate.
至少 它可以帮老鼠冬眠
At least, it can do it for mice.
和我们人类一样 实验老鼠天生不会冬眠
Like us humans, lab mice aren’t natural hibernators.
但是当老鼠接触到硫化氢气体时 它们会进入一种生命暂停的状态
But when they’re exposed to hydrogen sulfide gas, mice have entered a suspended animation-like
可以在可致命的低氧环境下存活好几个小时
state, and survived for hours in low-oxygen environments that would normally kill them.
硫化氢可以对生物体造成很多影响 过量的硫化氢则可以致命
Hydrogen sulfide does a lot of things to animal bodies, and in large amounts it can be deadly.
我们知道 线粒体是细胞中一种制造化学能量的结构
We know it can bind to a key enzyme in mitochondria,
而硫化氢可以与线粒体中的关键酶相结合
Which are structures inside cells that make chemical energy.
当硫化氢分子与这种酶结合时 它们会阻止氧气的进入
When hydrogen sulfide molecules bind to this enzyme, they block out oxygen.
这就会导致线粒体 这些能量工厂关闭 新陈代谢速率降低
And that could contribute to a shutdown of these powerhouses, lowering metabolism and
最终让动物体进入一种冬眠状态
triggering a sort of hibernation.
要唤醒这些老鼠 科学家们只需阻断硫化氢的供应即可
To wake the mice up, all scientists needed to do was to remove the hydrogen sulfide supply.
老鼠醒来后看上去没事 没有任何行为或神经性的损伤
The mice came to, and seemed fine, without any behavioral or neurological problems.
当然 在老鼠身上起作用并不代表在人身上也有用
Just because it works on mice, of course, doesn’t mean it’ll work on people.
不过 想想这件事的可能性
But think of the possibilities!
如果开拓外太空真的开始了 让宇航员进入休眠状态
If space colonization ever kicks off, putting astronauts in a suspended animation could
可能会让征途容易很多 也节省食物和其它资源
make the journey a whole lot easier – and save on food and other resources.
即使仅对某些人体器官起作用 也是医学界的一大步
Even if it just worked on individual human organs, that could be a huge step in medicine,
它能让移植器官更加健康 从而延长宿主的生命
and make the organs we transplant healthier, and extend their shelf-lives.
如今 即使研究者发现了硫化氢或其他疗法是如何让我们进入休眠的
Now, even if researchers figure out how hydrogen sulfide or some other treatment can send us
在我们被放入功能齐全的「平衡仓」之前
into a long sleep, there are still other issues that would need to be ironed out before we
仍然有其它问题需要解决
have fully-functional “stasis pods.”
比如 人体不能长期的保持静止
Like, human bodies aren’t well adapted to staying still for extended periods.
不然会形成血栓 血栓非常危险且可能致死
They tend to get blood clots, which are really dangerous and can lead to death.
长期卧床的人和低重力的宇航员会肌肉萎缩 骨质疏松
And people on long bed-rest and astronauts in low gravity tend to lose muscle and their bones weaken.
所以即使人类可以冬眠 我们仍得搞清楚
So even if humans could be made to hibernate, we’d have to figure out
如何让我们的身体保持健康
How to keep our bodies healthy too.
所以 我们还要做大量的测试和改进 直到患者可以得到更好的冬眠疗法
So, there are plenty of tests and tweaks to do before patients get better, hibernation-based
或者是将休眠的宇航员送入太空
therapies in the ER or we’re blasting off resting astronauts into space.
随着研究的深入 人类冬眠将越来越像现实的科学
But as we learn more, human hibernation is looking less like a sci-fi fantasy
而不再是科幻片里的东西
And more like actual science.
感谢观看本集由Patreon赞助支持的SciShow
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, brought to you by our patrons on Patreon.
如果你想赞助本节目 前往patreon.com/scishow
If you want to help support this show, go to patreon.com/scishow.
别忘了在youtube.com/scishow订阅本节目
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

人类可以冬眠吗?理论上可以。冬眠可以给人类带来巨大的好处,但也会有负面的影响。看了这个视频以后,你就会觉得人类冬眠不再是幻想。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Radium

审核员

祐子祐

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zueoGI18ds

相关推荐