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为什么你画的比例是错误的?该如何修复它们? – 译学馆
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为什么你画的比例是错误的?该如何修复它们?

Why Your Proportions are Wrong and How to Fix Them

为什么你的比例是错误的——脚骨作业点评
大家好 欢迎收看点评课
Hey, guys, welcome to a critique episode.
今天我要讲解的是脚骨
I’m gonna be doing foot bones.
它不像腿骨那样有很多作业交上来
And not as many submissions as with the leg bones.
我好奇这是否
I wonder if it had anything to do
与绘制脚骨的难度有关系
with how difficult the foot bones are to draw.
好的 我上次给大家布置的作业是
So okay the assignment for the feet that I gave you guys was
我给你们摆了一堆脚骨架的姿势
I gave you has a bunch of poses of Skelly feet.
它们不仅有多种观察角度
They weren’t just neutral in different angles,
而且是真实的脚部姿势
but they were feet with actual poses.
你应该把它们当作简单框架画出来
And you were supposed to draw those as simple forms,
因为 你知道的
because you know, really
这样可以帮你在实际中快速画出脚骨
that’s what is gonna help you draw this stuff in real life,
只要你掌握了基本结构
if you understand the simple forms
你真的画骨架的时候也没有多少次 对吧
how often do you gonna actually draw bones, right.
除非你是一个插画家
Unless maybe you’re an illustrator
你需要画一副骨架
and you’re drawing a skeleton
或者需要画一些没有肉的僵尸
or like some zombie with the flesh ripped off.
通常你画的都是外部结构
You’re usually gonna be drawing the surface forms.
简单的外形 脚的大致形状
And the simple form, the big shape of the foot
比每个单独的骨头都重要得多
is much more important than every individual bone.
脚踝上有那么多小骨头
There are so many little bones in the ankle
你可以试着把它们记住
that you can try to memorize those
但是这样没有意义
it’s kind of pointless
脚骨都被遮住了
they’re all covered up.
了解脚骨是好的 但不是必要的
It’s good to know that stuff but not first,
你不会先详细地了解脚骨
you don’t learn that stuff first
然后再试着学习简单的外形
and then try to learn the simple forms.
正相反
It’s the opposite.
你先了解简单的结构
You learn the simple forms
然后学着怎么在里面添加内容
and then you learn how to put the stuff inside of it.
你开始慢慢往你的知识中补充细节
You start adding detail to your knowledge.
那么
So okay.
我们从马里奥开始
We’re gonna start with Mario
这是他的作业
here are his submissions.
我要和你们讨论的一个重点是
So one of the main things I wanna talk to you guys
关于画脚的先后顺序
about is hierarchy of forms.
我在画手骨的课程里曾经讲过
I’ve talked about this in the hand lesson when I showed you,
从基本结构开始
you know, starting with the basic blocks
然后加上一些内部的细节
and then adding some of the anatomical information
比如说 指关节
like the knuckles
接下来 第二步
and you know, the secondary forms, right?
基本结构上的更小一点的细节
The slightly smaller forms of the big block.
然后接着画手的第三步
And then adding the tertiary forms on top of that
比如说手指上的皱纹和静脉
which are like wrinkles and veins on top of the knuckles,
像这些非常微小的细节
like things like that which are like the really small details.
我说的细节不是指高光和半色调
And I don’t mean details as in like highlights and halftones.
那些是规范外形的
Those are things that define the forms.
我是说真实结构上的顺序
I’m talking about hierarchy of actual forms
比如先是最简单的结构 然后是复杂点的
like big simple forms, then medium forms,
最后到非常小的细节
and then very small forms.
最初的简单结构是最重要的
The primary simple forms are the most important,
在你的整幅画里 第三步的小细节是最不重要的
and then the tertiary small forms are the least important in getting your big picture.
你想要细节看起来完美
The tertiary forms look great
前提是你第一步的基础造型要画的非常好
if they’re on top of a well built primary form drawing,
仅仅依靠第三步的细节是不够的
but on their own they don’t lookgood.
让我们看一下右下角这两个脚骨
Let’s take a look at this bottom two that you have on the right.
这是一个正视图
This is an ortho view,
也就是说你看到的是脚掌或者脚背
meaning you’re looking directly onto the bottom or the top.
你不需要花费太多的感知力就能把它们简化
So simplifying these into forms doesn’t make too much sense
因为就像你正在看一架飞机
because it’s just like you’re looking directly at a plane,
你没办法看到一个十分清晰的三维结构
you can’t have those three-dimensional forms indicated very well.
所以这里要说到的另一个概念是——框架
So another concept applies here which is enveloping.
框架是指你要画一个脚
Enveloping is basically you have a foot
就像图片里的一样 它是由这么多小块组成
like this and it’s made up of all these little pieces,
但是你不能从这些小块画起
but you don’t start with all the little pieces
因为这样你的视野会受到限制
because you can get tunnel vision.
等到你画完所有的小块时
By the time you get down to finishing all the pieces,
回头看 你就会发现
you step back and realize oh wow,
我把所有的东西都画得弯弯曲曲的
I’ve been skewing this whole thing kinda curving it,
当我埋头苦干时 我放大了所有事物
or I was growing everything as I was going down,
或者缩小了所有的东西
or shrinking everything.
你必须先从整幅画去看
You have to look at the big picture first,
然后再把它分成几小块
and then break it up into smaller parts.
框架是一个二维的轮廓类似于形式概念的层次结构
Enveloping is just a two-dimensional version of like the hierarchy of forms concept.
所以 看一下你画在右边的脚
So if you look at the foot you drew on the right,
你画的脚的框架应该是像这样的
the envelope for your foot that you drew would be something like this.
如果我是这样画一个脚的框架
And if I was to start with the envelope like that for a foot,
在我看来 这不大像脚
to me that doesn’t look like
它看起来太宽了
a foot, it looks very wide.
所以我会立刻纠正自己
So I would have immediately corrected myself.
相信你也看到了 这是一只很宽的脚
Hopefully,you see that that’s a very wide foot as well.
从这些框架开始
Starting with this envelope,
我相信这能帮助你更精确地把握比例
I think would help you keep the proportions more accurate.
这只左边的脚也是一样的
And same thing on this foot on the left,
如果你从这只脚的框架开始画
if you started with the envelope on this, you
你会发现它看起来很高 很瘦
would realized it’s really tall, really skinny.
但不仅仅是这样
But not just that, okay,
好 框架画好了 现在开始分解成几小块
let’s say you’ve got an envelope and now you start breaking it up into smaller pieces,
你不需要再重复画上所有细碎的小块
you don’t then go in and start adding every little small piece again.
而是把它分解成另一个大的结构
You break it up into the next largest form. So,
像这样 你看……
for example, you see how the…
让我们画一个框架
let’s get this big envelope.
那么下一个小一点的部位是哪一个呢?
Then what are the next smaller pieces?
它不是这里的每一根骨头
It’s not each individual bone in here,
比如说这块地方的跖骨
like you’ve got the metatarsals in this area.
更小一点的部位应该是各组之间相对独立的部分
The next smaller pieces would be all the separations between the groups.
所以相对独立的部分是这里 先画出跗骨
So this separation in here you got the tarsals.
在跖骨和趾骨之间 你可以画出这个独立部分
Then you got this separation between the metatarsalsand phalanges.
然后 看着这三个部分 你会问
And then, so you look at these three groups and you say,
这三个部分的长度比例是怎样的呢?
” Okay, what is the ratio between the lengths of each of these groups?”
一旦你画出正确的比例
Then once you’ve got those ratios correct,
然后你就可以把每一组分成各个单独的骨头
then you start breaking up each group into each individual bone.
通过这个方法
And by doing that,
从整个大结构分解成几个小一点的大结构
starting with the biggest form breaking it up into the next biggest form,
然后再分解成下一个大一点的结构
and then breaking it up into the next biggest forms,
每一次分解的结构越来越小
going smaller and smaller each time,
这样就会让你的比例更加精确
you keep your proportions more accurate that way,
因此区分这三个部分会更容易
because it’s a lot easier to compare these three areas
相对于从每块小骨头开始
than it is to start thinking about every little bone.
就像……我也不知道
Because there’s, like, I don’t know,
如果有二三十根骨头呢?
what is it like 20 something bones in there or 30?
你知道的 如果试着同时在脑子里比较所有的小块骨头
You know, if you’re trying to juggle all that in your mind and comparing all that
这可比分成三个部分难多了
it’s a lot harder than three shapes.
我觉得在这个框架里 你画错了
And I see that in this drawing you made a mistake in the overall envelope,
你把它画得又瘦又长
you made it tall and skinny.
这里有三组部位的关系你画错了
And you made a mistake in the relationshipsbetween the three groups:
分别是:跗骨 跖骨 趾骨
the tarsals, metatarsals,and phalanges.
看看我画的
Let me show you.
这是高级课程 打开3D模型
So this is the premium section, you guys get these 3D models.
这是脚骨的3D模型
So this is the 3D model of the foot bones.
可以看到 这个是底部视图
So I can just get this bottom view,
我打算把它缩小一点
I’m gon na zoom out a little bit,
然后导入到Photoshop 这样我就可以比较
let me bring this into Photoshop so I can compare.
好了 这只脚 和你画的脚是同一边的
OK, so there’s the foot, same side as yours.
现在我们来比较它们的长度
When I compare the length, let’s say,
从脚后跟到分区的平均区域
from the heel to the average area of the division
在跗骨和跖骨之间的这里
between the tarsals and metatarsals right around here.
和这里 跗骨和跖骨是平均划分的
And then the same thing in here, average division between metatarsals and phalanges.
看这两个你划分的长度 它们大致是相等的
If I look at these two lengths that you defined they’re about equal.
现在让我们看一下这只真的脚骨
But now let’s look at a real foot.
它们的中间线大概是在这里
The average is around here.
看一下跗骨有多长 跖骨有多长
Look at how much longer the tarsals are then the metatarsals.
看见了吗?
You see that?
脚和手是相反的
So the foot is built in the opposite way that the hand is.
我们的手腕上有腕骨
With the hand, we have the carpals in the wrist,
腕骨是手骨最小的部分
the smallest section.
接下来大一点的是掌骨
Then we have the metacarpals in here the next is a little bit bigger.
但是所有的趾骨加起来比掌骨大一点
And then all the phalanges together are a little bit bigger than that.
脚骨则完全相反
In the foot, it’s the opposite. Now,
如果我画这个
if I was drawing this,
我不会停在这里
I wouldn’t stop there, I would
我会把它划分成几个小的结构
keep dividing it into the smaller forms.
然后我会……
And I would… like,
比方说 看着跗骨 这整个部分
let’s say, I’m looking at the tarsals this whole area in here, then
我会把这个长度划分成这边的这个长度
I would divide this length into this length in here,
这个和这个
this one and this one.
看 跟骨有这么长
Because look how much longer this heel bone is
然后剩下的是跗骨
than the rest of the tarsals.
把这个方法在中间再操作一次 这就不对了
You have it, again, about in the middle, so that’s off.
从大的结构开始 然后慢慢开始分解
So you start big and you slowly start to break it up.
不要一块一块地画骨头
Don’t draw each one individually as kind
就像清单上的东西一样
of just like a list of things.
把它们分解
You break them up. Okay,
这一定会帮你画出正确的比例
that will definitely help you keep things in proportion. Okay.
谢谢马里奥
So thanks, Mario.
让我们接着看布朗温的作业
Let’s move on to Bronwyn,
这些是布朗温作业中存在的同样问题的不同例子
and here this is just another example of the same issue, where, Bronwyn,
你在单个骨头上关注的很多
you’re focusing on a lot
却没有先看到主要的结构
on the individual bones without constructing the primary forms first.
现在我要画一个给你们看
And here I wan na actually do one for you guys,
告诉你我所说的
show you what I mean.
如何画一个简单的结构
How do you take a simple form and
然后把它分解成第二 第三个结构
then break it down into secondary and tertiary forms?
我不是不建议你们画一块块单个的骨头
Because I don’t wanna discourage you guys from drawing these individual bones.
虽然这有助于你们掌握每一根骨头
It’s fine, it’s good to study each bone, youknow.
我想告诉你们怎么画简单的结构
I wanna show you guys how to do this,
让我先做一些示范
so let me do a little demonstration.
我打算画这个
I’m gonna take this one here,
左边这个的是参考 这样我们可以有比较
and here’s the reference on the left just so we can compare
比较你自己画的和这个真的脚骨的比例
your proportions and the forms you’re showing.
我通常从姿势开始画起
So the first thing I would start with, I alwaysstart with this: the gesture.
姿势是结构的动作
Gesture is the motion of the forms,
我想要确保姿势的比例是正确的
but I also wanna make sure that the gesture has the right proportions in it.
姿势会引导我 就像是一个框架
So the gesture will guide, it’s kind of like an envelope.
我不仅仅只是关注框架的形状
It’s an envelope in which I don’t just focus on the shape,
我还关注它的动作
but I also focus on the motion
姿势的动作
of the shape.
我想确定我画的图形是活的
I wanna make sure thatthe shape I draw is dynamic.
它不仅仅是图形的比例
It’s not just the proportions of the shape,
还是图形的设计
it’s the design of the shape.
所以当我观察这个参照物
So when I look at the reference,
看这个脚的姿势 这个姿势非常……
when I look at this foot pose, the gesture that I’m seeing: very,
脚踝的曲线非常棒
very nice curve through the ankle.
当你只是看着一根骨头 你看不出来这些
When you look at the individual bones, youdon’t see that.
回过头来 你再看整根脚骨
But when you step back, you look at the whole thing,
看看它们之间的节奏
you look at the flow between them all,
你会发现那里有一条非常优美的曲线
you see there’s a really nice curve there.
在脚趾头之间有一个非常尖锐的角
And then there’s a very sharp corner between the ball of the toe,
它指向的那个地方
and the way it points there.
那个地方有很大的压力
There’s a lot of pressure there,
重量正在转向那个脚趾 所以我想表现出紧张感
the weight is going on to that toe so I wanna show tension
在这个角落
with that corner.
然后在另一边 应该是这样的
And then on the other side, there’s gon na be that,
是一条简单的S曲线
just a simple S curve, and the heel
根骨从那里弹出来
kinda pops out from there.
所以姿势或者框架
So the gesture or the envelope,
我会用这些线条画出有节奏的框架
the rhythmical envelope that I’ll draw, will be those lines.
外形 是把我所有的小结构组合在一起
The outer form, kind of grouping all my smallerforms together.
我不只是关注它的尺寸
I’m not just looking at the size I’m also looking
我还要看它是个怎样的踝关节
at how in the ankle it’s a little
它有点瘦 对吗?
bit thinner, right?
然后我们画到脚掌
And then as we get to the balls
你知道的 由于跖骨和趾骨之间的那些关节
of the foot you know, those joints between the metatarsals
它会变得宽一点
and the phalanges, it gets quite a bit wider
通过这里 而不是这里
through here than it is through here.
所以我想确保我能抓住这种关系
So I wanna make sure I capture that relationshipas well.
角度也很重要
And angles are important, too.
你看到我画了关节之间的参考角度了吗?
You see that angle I drew on the reference between the joints?
在我的绘画中 如果我只画一个水平面那是不对的
In my drawing, if I just draw a horizontal,that’s incorrect.
这是个错误的图形
It’s the wrong shape.
所以我会尝试在这里找到最准确的角度
So I’m gonna try to get the most accurate angle on there,
好了 现在是大脚趾
and then the big toe comes
像这样
out this way.
然后 同样的方法 你知道的
And then, same concept, you know,
框架组成了整个轮廓
envelope for the entire group of forms.
让我清理一下
Let me clean this up a little bit.
我在实际绘图中 通常都会保持整洁
I usually stay a little cleaner when I’m doing actual drawings,
但不知道为什么我的点评课
I don’t know why my critiques
往往会变得混乱 可能是因为我在说话
tend to get messy, probably because I’m talking. Actually,
实际上 我想要多一点曲线
I wanna curve that even more,
我想推动那个姿势
I’m gonna push that gesture.
我觉得它有点僵硬 看
I feel like it’s a little stiff. See,
这个地方
this is the area where you
你做这些调整的时候 就可以看出来
make these adjustments see how much quicker it is for
在它还是一条线时 进行改正有多快
me to change that contour when it’s just oneline.
如果我已经把根骨画出来了
If I had drawn the heel already with,
你知道的 腓骨就在那里
you know, the fibula right on there, it takes
我重画一遍需要的时间比这长多少
so much longer for me to redraw that.
但现在我关心的是怎么画出框架的正确形状
But now I’m focusing on getting the correct shape
这个姿势
of this envelope, of this gesture, and
对我来说 做调整很容易
it’s really easy for me to make adjustments.
如果我看到的比例是错误的 或者很僵硬
If I see proportional errors or it’s stiff,
无论如何我都会
whatever it is, I can
快速地调整它
make a very quick adjustment to it.
但我觉得这很不错 这根曲线……
So I feel like that’s pretty decent. Curve…
它把小拇指推得往前弯了一点
push that pinky bending in a little more,
实际上 像这样
and actually more like that,
好的 继续
there you go. Alright,
我感觉这是一个很完美的框架
I feel like that’s a pretty accurateenvelope.
好的现在 我要把脚骨放在哪里
And now, I wanna put the heel in there somewhere
在我开始画所有的小块结构之前
before I start drawing in like all the little
这个图形里的小块
pieces inside of this form.
我想确保这一大块
I wanna make sure that the big chunk
这个根骨囊括在另一个图形之中
of the heel is included in kind of another shape.
我想要确保我画的比例是正确的
And I wanna make sure that the proportionsare correct.
所以我该怎么办?
So what do I do?
再看看这个参照物
I’m gonna look at the reference,
测一测它的宽度 堆起来看看
take a measurement of the width and then stack it up and see
根骨长到哪里 根骨的顶部是在哪里?
where does the heel end, where’s the top ofthe heel?
你看 是在这里吗?这儿呢?这儿?
You know, is it here? Is it here? Is it here?
对我的测量结果充满信心是非常好的
It would be very nice to know and be confident with my measurements.
所以我用手写笔在这里测量
So I’m measuring with my stylus here,
这是它的宽 我从这里开始……
getting that width, and I’m starting from where the
这里脚趾会接触到平面
ball of the foot touches the ground.
(根骨)看起来正好在两个脚的宽度
And it looks like it’s exactly two widths wide
从脚趾接触地面的地方(堆起来)
from where the ball of the foot touches
是的 就在这里
the ground, and that’s right about there.
这里有一个非常好的工具可以帮助你正确地画出比例
Here’s another very nice tool to help you draw proportions correctly,
它叫做
it’s called a
铅垂线
plumb line.
它是一个非常基本的工具
It’s a very basic thing.
如果你正在学习解剖学课程你就会认识这个工具
If you guys are taking anatomy course you should kind of know this already.
铅垂线是一条垂直线
Plumb line is a vertical line,
也可以说是一条水平线
could be a horizontal line as well, where you take one
它可以帮助你画出一条垂直线
point on something and you draw a vertical line,
你可以看到 它与之相交的地方
and you see where it intersects with
和其他东西相交
other things.
这有助于你在水平面上作画
And that will help you place things correctlyhorizontally.
如果我从脚趾这里开始画直线
If I draw a straight line up from where the ball
脚趾会接触到平面
of the foot touches the ground, it kinda
它正好穿过这个根骨的中间
goes right through kinda the middle of thisheel.
我想……好吧
And I think, okay, well,
如果我从这里取一点 然后把它拉下来会怎样呢?
what about if I take a point from here and draw it down. Oh,
看 它到脚尖了
look at that it kinda goes right to the tip of the toe,
很棒 对齐了
nice alignment.
如果我正在画这只脚 我想确定
If I’m drawing this foot I wan na make sure
它们正好对齐 除非
that those align correctly. Unless,
我有意地推动了这个姿势
I pushed the gesture intentionally,
然后你就可以开始考虑
then you just gotta start thinking of things
假如你画的比参照物更弯曲
like if you’re bending something farther than the reference,
你必须确保
you’ve gotta make sure you
你明白这条线不再跟铅垂线对齐
understand that the plumb lines won’t align anymore as,
你知道的 因为你推动了所有东西
you know, because you’re pushing
而我只是把脚骨推得弯一点
things away, but I’m just pushing more of the curvature
我不认为
of the foot, I don’t think the
我所做的调整会移动铅垂线
adjustment I made is gonna be offsetting theplumb lines.
所以这里是铅垂线 然后我要说的小建议是
So here’s that plumb line and then I’d say the tip
大脚趾应该像在那里的一样
of the big toe should be like right there.
好 这里是根骨
All right. And there’s the heel.
这是一个大概的位置
And that gives me a rough placement
在这儿我应该把我的小根骨框架……
of where I should put my little heel envelope.
看看我的根骨框架
And actually, look at the shape I’m putting for the heel,
这是根骨的姿势
it’s the gesture of the heel.
事实上 我并没有在看根骨的真实轮廓
I’m not actually looking at the actual contour
应该是这样的
of the heel which would be more like this.
实际上 这就是你在你的画上没有的东西
And actually, that’s what you didn’t haveon yours.
我在看这个姿势
I’m looking at the gesture.
根骨是怎么连接到其他脚骨的?
How does the heel connect to the rest of thefoot?
这是一条S曲线
It’s kind of an S curve.
如果你看一下这整个骨头
If you look at the group this whole groupof bones.
你会发现它有一点点扭曲
There’s a little bit of twisting going on.
这儿有一条这样的S曲线
There’s an S curve like that.
所以我看到的两条主要的曲线
So there’s two primary rhythm lines I see
在整个姿势中 有一条S曲线
in this whole pose, there’s an S curve from
从脚趾头穿到了根骨
the toes up the body of the foot into theheel.
这就是从脚趾到脚跟的曲线
So that’s the rhythm from toes to heel.
如果我把脚趾和腿连接在一起
And then if I connect the toes to be the leg,
这就是我的C曲线
it’s this C curve that I started with.
这就是两条主要曲线 他们都在这里
Two primary rhythms and they’re both there,
所以我想确保我可以把他们两个都找到
so I wan na make sure I’m kinda capturing both of them.
画这个图形 我看不到另一面
And drawing through forms, I don’t see the other side
的根骨 但我知道它在哪里
of this heel but I know it’s there,
它被腿骨盖住了
it’s covered up by the leg bones.
画图形可以帮助你把它们都连接起来
Drawing through the forms will help you keep things connected,
也可以帮你
and then also helps you
确保正确的比例
keep things in proportion.
我一直都看着它们 就像那样 可以说
I see that all the time, where like, let’s say,
你知道的 一只胳膊……
you have you know, an arm…
我只是想画一根手臂
I’m gonna just draw a stick
为了向你们展示这个概念
figure arm here just to show you the concept.
然后这里有一些东西盖住了一部分手臂
And then there’s something here kinda coveringthe arm.
然后手臂从另一侧伸出来 有人……
And then the arm comes out from the other side and somebody…
你知道的 这个人
you know, the person
会画出这样的手臂“好的 我会继续把它画到肩膀上”
will draw the arm like,”Okay I’m gonna continueand connect it to the shoulder and the pec.”
然后它就像是 “好 看吧!它们没有并连在一起在那种形状下 他们其实并不会连在一起”
And then it’s like,”Well, look it! They’re not connecting,underneath that form, they’re not actually merging.”
我到处都能看到这种情况
Happens all the time, I see it everywhere.
这只是我给你们展示的一个非常典型的例子
This is a very obvious example that I’m showing you,
但是这种情况在对人们
but this kind of thing happens all the
来说比较细小的方面总会出现
time in much more subtle places for people.
他们甚至没有意识到他们正在做这件事
They don’t even realize that they’re doingthis.
因此 打型能确保
So drawing through the form to make sure
根骨能够连接 并随着
that this heel connects and still follows that
S曲线的节奏一直贯穿始终
S curve rhythm all the way through.
现在我有两个很棒的框架
Now I got two very nice envelopes.
是为了向你们展示简化的方法
Just to simplify for you guys even more,
我有这个S曲线框架 像这样的
I got this S curve envelope kinda like this,
然后我画的是这个C曲线框架
and then I got this C curve envelope.
这些也是姿势线
And these are also gesture lines.
这些包括了第二步骤 所有小的……
Together these contain the secondary forms, all the little…
你知道的 那些骨头组
you know, the groups of bones.
然后他们会包括那些细节部分
And then that will contain the tertiary forms.
继续 让我们加快一点速度
So let’s move on. Let’s speed this up a little bit.
这个姿势在这 我们调低一下不透明度
Got my gesture let’s drop the opacity on that.
我想把它保留在背景中
I wanna kinda have it in the background alittle bit.
把我的笔的颜色换成黑色 好的
Change my color to black. Okay,
现在我要先画主要轮廓
now I wanna draw my primary forms,
这个最大的轮廓
the biggest form possible.
我前面提到过 整个脚骨都扭曲了一点点
So I kinda mentioned earlier that the whole foot is twisting a little bit.
所以我在这里看到了脚跟的侧面
And so I’m seeing the side plane of the heel here,
而我现在看到的这一面
and I’m seeing the side plane of the
这边是一个大脚趾
big toe here, on this side.
所以就像 我同时看见了两个侧面的平面
And so it’s like you know, I’m seeing the side of planes from both sides…
不是
well no,
它扭曲了 在上面的 它是这样面对的
it’s twisting. On the top, it’s kind of facing this way.
在下面 它往这边走
In the bottom, it’s going the
这就是为什么那里
other way, so that’s why there
有一条S曲线穿过了那里
‘s an S curve rhythm through there.
S曲线通常意味着扭曲
S curve usually means there’s a twist.
所以我通过画这种结构的方式
So the way I’m gon na draw this form,
这个主要的结构 我想说的是
this primary form, is I’m gon na indicate a side
侧面在这里 想象一个大块
plane in here, thinking of a big block,
一个扭曲的大块 但它仍是一个非常简单的图形
a twisting big block but it’s still a very simple form.
然后在根骨的另一边
And then on the other side of that heel,
我不会画出来一个侧面 因为
I’m not gonna show a side plane because we’re
我们不是在那一边看的
not looking at it on that side,
但是我会在这里慢慢扭转它 然后露出来
but I am gonna slowly twist it here and then reveal the side
这里的侧面
plane here.
你们能够开始​​看到这有点儿用了吗?
You guys kind of start seeing how useful thisis?
这很容易
How much easier it’s gon na be
想象一下这块里的每一块骨头
to imagine each bone inside of this block.
现在 这个三维扭曲的东西
Now that I kinda have this three-dimensional twisting
当我画每一个部位时 它会引导我
thing kinda guiding me as I draw each part.
想象一下 这有多难
Imagine how much harder it is to apply
在你画一块块骨头的时候 把这种
this twisting concept to each individual bone as
扭曲的概念应用上去 真的
you draw them. Man,
我不知道我是否能够那样做 好的
I don’t know if I would be able to do that. Okay,
然后 这是附着的脚趾
then, this attaches to the group oftoes.
而我只是将它们组合在一起
And I’m just gonna group them all together.
我通常将大脚趾与其他脚趾分开
I usually separate the big toe from the other ones,
但我会把所有的东西
but I’m gonna group this whole thing
放在一起
together.
我有一张与这个例子相同的范画
I have this same drawing as an assignment example
在高级课程中 所以我不会
in the premium section, so I’m not
要完全地重画这个图
gonna redo the whole thing exactly the sameway.
我要告诉你们我的说的
I’m gonna show you guys what I mean
按主要 次要 再到细节的顺序去画是什么意思
by primary forms, to secondary, to tertiary. Okay.
所以我们看到的是脚趾的前面部分
So we’re seeing a little bit of the front planes
就是那个 好的
of those toes, that’s what that is. Okay.
这就是我的脚骨 你画有腿骨
So that’s my foot then you do have the leg bones,
那里附着脚踝
and the ankle attached in there.
我现在要忽略它
I’m just gonna ignore that for now.
我只想向你们展示这个从主要到次要的方法
I just wanna show you guys this concept of primary to secondary.
所以次要的结构就像一块块独立的骨头……
So the secondary forms would then be like the individual bones that…
你知道
you know, the
简单的骨头结构
simple forms of the bones.
不是每块骨头的小部分
Not all the little bumps of each bone,
是每块骨头的简单结构
but the simple forms of each bone.
所以 让我们来看看这一块
So let’s just look at this guy here.
假如你有一个圆柱形的帽子 帽子越往上越尖
So you’ve got like a cylindrical cap, tapers a little bit,
然后它的顶部有一个球
and then it attaches to a ball.
这些趾骨绕着它转动
It’s the ball that the phalanges will rotatearound.
这是一个清晰的外形
It’s the articulating surface.
这就是次要的结构
So that would be the secondary form.
然后细节部分就是
And then the tertiary forms would be all the little bumps
上面的这些小骨头
on top of it. And,
你知道的
you know,
通常你画的都是真的脚
typically what you’re gonna be doing is you’ll actually be drawing a real
而不仅仅是脚的骨头
foot not just the bones of the foot.
所以次要结构就会是
And so the secondary forms would be
像这里经过的静脉和肌腱一样
like the veins and the tendons running across there,
有时候也包括 皱纹
sometimes you know, the wrinkles.
你知道的 这里的皮肤会受到挤压
You know, there’s gonna be a pinch in here of the skin,
这些是细节结构
those will be the tertiary forms,
所有这些小的东西
all those little things the little bumps.
但这个跖骨的大结构也会显示出来
But the big form of that metatarsal will showthrough.
这山脊就在这里 这里的山脊
This ridge right here, this top ridge in here,
这是皮下的 所以我有点想
that’s subcutaneous, and so I do kinda wan na
想知道这里的主要结构是什么
know what that primary form going across thereis.
我希望你们能听得懂
I hope that makes sense guys.
它可以帮你保持所有的东西
It’s gonna help you keep all your things
的比例 并且让它们变得更立体
in proportion and also feeling more three-dimensional,
更生动 如果你按照这个过程去画的话
and more dynamic if you follow this process.
就这样
So that is it.
谢谢你们 伙计 提交了作业
Thank you, guys, for submitting your feetassignments.
和往常一样 在高级解剖课程里面
And as always, there is a lot more available
还有更多内容
in the Premium Anatomy Course.
我点评了更多 更具体的例子
I critique a lot more people with a lot more specific anatomy advice.
所以如果你想要获得更多的信息请点击promo.com/anatomy
So if you want more of that information, goto promo.com/anatomy.
下次课见
See you guys in the butt.
臀部教程
In the butt lesson.
下次课是臀部课程学习 再见
The next lesson is the butt lesson. Okay, bye.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bfh4JvyCtV8

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