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为什么人看不到自己眼球的转动 – 译学馆
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为什么人看不到自己眼球的转动

Why You'll Never See Your Eyes Move in a Mirror

[开始音乐]
[INTRO ♪]
心理科学秀
[INTRO ♪]
有些视频看了会让人失去方向感
You know how some videos can be super disorienting,
就像拍视频的人不能保持手的稳定那样
like if whoever’s holding the camera just can’t keep their hand steady?
或许你已经看过电影《女巫布莱尔》里
Or maybe you’ve seen the Blair Witch Project
摇摇晃晃的镜头
in all of its shaky cam glory.
经常移动视线会让人感到恶心
Having your vision move around a lot can get downright nauseating.
但同时 你的眼睛总是在移动
But also, your eyes move all the time
以让你看到你眼前发生的所有事情
to get a complete picture of what’s going on in front of you.
那日常生活为何不像校准不良的第一人称视角游戏一样呢?
So why doesn’t day-to-day life feel like a poorly-calibrated first-person video game?
为了掩盖这种混乱
Well, your eyes and brain cover up that mess
你的眼睛和大脑会做些奇怪的事情
by doing some really weird stuff,
甚至改变你对时间的感觉
even changing how you perceive time.
你的眼睛一直在移动
Your eyes move a lot.
比如 你可能会注意到你阅读时眼睛跳得很快
Like you might notice just how quickly they jump around when you’re reading.
科学家称之为“眼跳”
Scientists call those jumps saccades.
根据你的眼睛需要转多远的角度
Each one can take up to a hundred milliseconds,
每一次的眼跳需要花最多100毫秒
depending on how far your eyes need to turn.
但是大脑不会只让你看到模糊的移动过程
But instead of showing you blurry motion all the time,
而是直接跳过眼跳的时刻
your brain kind of just skips those moments.
心理学家是通过某种视觉实验学到这些的
One way psychologists know this is because of a certain kind of vision experiment.
如果物体的移动正好发生在眼跳的过程中
If you time the movement of the object to be exactly during a saccade,
人们就很难注意到这个物体
people have a hard time noticing.
一项研究要求人们看到图片跳转时按下开关
One study asked people to flip a switch when they saw an image jump
并追踪他们的眼睛
while having their eyes tracked.
研究人员发现 如果图像在眼跳开始约10毫秒后跳转
The researchers found that if the image jumped about 10 milliseconds
人们就不会注意到图像的跳转
after the start of a saccade, people didn’t notice—
只要眼球运动是图像运动的大约4倍
as long as their eye movement was about 3 times bigger than the image’s movement.
另外一些研究让人们把目光集中在
Other studies had people move their eyes to focus on an array
周边视野出现的一系列圆点上
of dots that appeared in their peripheral vision.
如果在眼跳过程中这些点阵发生了变化
If the pattern of those dots changed during the saccade,
参与者很难注意到这些变化
the participants had trouble noticing the change.
但是如果参与者的眼睛保持不动
But if the participants kept their eyes still and
而点阵移到了他们正在看的地方
the dots moved to where they were looking,
他们就更频繁地注意到点阵的变化
they noticed a pattern change more frequently.
你也可以自己测试
You can sort of test this yourself, too.
只需要看着镜子 移动你的眼睛
Just look in a mirror and move your
你永远不会看到你的眼睛在运动
eyes—you’ll never actually see your eyes in motion.
这些知识全都来自对眼跳记忆的研究
All of this is the study of transsaccadic memory,
基本上 大脑会为了形成对世界的完整画面
which is basically your brain’s short-term storage of all the visual information it’s taking in
而将所有视觉信息短期存储下来
to form a complete picture of the world,
就像拼图一样
like puzzle pieces.
在眼跳的时候 你的大脑不会在视觉上留下空缺
Your brain doesn’t just leave a hole in your vision during saccades.
大脑会用空缺时间前后的信息进行填补
It fills in that gap in with what’s around it, chronologically.
奇怪的是 大脑用来填补空缺的信息
And what’s really weird is that seems to draw more
更多似乎来自你眼跳后看到的东西
from what you see right after the jump.
先让你自己想一下
I’ll let that sink in.
你的大脑怎么可能向你展示未来的事情
How can your brain show you things that are happening in the future,
哪怕只有几分之一秒呢?
even if it’s just a fraction of a second?
这是因为大脑不会即刻处理信息
Well, it has to do with the fact that you don’t process things instantaneously.
你的大脑会过滤所有你感觉到的东西
Your brain filters everything that your senses detect.
你对时间的感觉
And your sense of time passing can also change based
也会随着你集中精力在做的事情而改变
on what you’re doing and focused on.
这种错觉叫做“时停错觉” 在希腊语中意为“暂停时间”
This is an illusion called chronostasis, whichmeans”stopping time” in Greek.
如果你的手表有会移动的秒针
You can see it yourself if you’ve got a watch
你可以自己观察
with a ticking second hand.
如果你把目光从手表上移开然后再移回来
If you look away from the watch and then back,
秒针有时似乎会在移到下一秒前
sometimes the second hand will seem to pause for
停留了太长时间
a little bit too long before ticking again.
基本上 你的眼睛接收来自手表的光信息
Basically,there seems to be a tiny delay
和你对手表产生有意识的视觉感知之间
between your eyes receiving light information from the watch
似乎存在微小的延迟
and your conscious visual perception of the watch.
当你有一个眼跳需要填补的时候
When you’ve got a saccade to fill, it’s like your brain
大脑就好像会对你眼中的下个信息催单
puts a rush order on the next bit of information
这就是“预见未来”的部分
from your eyes—that’s the “seeing the future” part.
接着它就休息一秒
And then it rests for a second.
好吧 不到一秒 一秒的一部分
Well,not a whole second. Part of a second.
有些关于时停错觉的研究
In some studies of the chronostasis illusion,
会对受试者的眼睛进行追踪
subjects had their eyes tracked.
当他们把注意力集中在屏幕上的一个特定点上时
When they focused on a specific point on a screen,
一个计时器开始计时4秒
a 4 second timer started.
但关键在于 计时器会将
But here’s the catch: that timer would vary how long
显示第一个数字的时间变化几百毫秒
it would display the first number by a few hundred milliseconds.
然后参与者会被问及
Then subjects were asked whether that first number
第一个数字的显示时间比其他数字长还是短
was displayed for a longer or shorter time than the rest.
研究人员发现
And the researchers found that they could shorten that
第一秒的时间平均可以缩短120毫秒
first second by about 120 milliseconds on average before
之后人们才会说第一秒似乎缩短了
people would say it seemed shorter.
换句话说 人们把第一秒的时间
In other words, people were overestimating how long
高估了大约120毫秒
that first second took by about 120 milliseconds.
他们的脑海紧紧盯住了数字1的图像
Their mind’s eye was holding onto that image
只是花费的时间稍微长了点
of a number 1 just a little longer.
这有点像时间旅行!
So… kind of like time travel!
对于这一现象 我们还没有一个完整的生物学解释
We don’t have a complete biological explanationfor this phenomenon.
想要深入了解活人的视觉系统是很难的
It’s hard to get deep into the visual systems of living humans,
而猴子和老鼠则根本不能反馈他们对时间的感知
and monkeys and rats can’t exactly report their perception of time.
但是我们知道无论一个人是主动移动眼睛
But we know that the illusion happens whether
还是因为周边视野出现某物而反射性地移动眼睛
a person voluntarily moves their eyes or does it reflexively
这种错觉都会产生
because something appears in their peripheral vision.
这都表明这是大脑中一个非常低级的过程
This suggests it’s a very low-level processin the brain.
研究人员认为 这可能是来自上丘的信号
Researchers think it could be part of a signal coming from the superior colliculus,
大脑的这一部位负责处理视觉和眼睛的无意识运动
which is a brain region involved in processing vision and unconscious movement of your eyes.
但这只是根据我们目前掌握的数据推测出来的
But this is really just a guess based on what seems to fit the data we have so far.
让事情变得更复杂的是
And to make things even more complicated,
时停错觉不仅仅发生在视觉上
the chronostasis illusion doesn’t just happen with vision.
人们在触觉和听觉等其他感官上有相似的体验
People have similar experiences with other senses, like touch or hearing.
比如 在类似计时器的实验中
Like in experiments kind of like that timer study where
参与者伸手并抓住一个正在振动的把手
participants reach and grab a vibrating handle,they overestimate how long
结果高估了把手以不同频率振动的时间
it vibrates at different frequencies after they make contact.
或者 当音调从一只耳朵切换到另一只耳朵时
Or people will overestimate the length of a period of silence
人们会高估两个音调间的静音长度
if tones switch from one ear to the other.
所以对于时停错觉
So scientists have a bit of a mystery to unravel
科学家仍有一些谜团需要解开
when it comes to time-stopping illusions.
但至少我们知道人类对时间的感知是不一致的
At the very least, we know that our perception of time isn’t consistent
这也许能让我们对世界少一些迷失感
maybe to help make the world a little less disorienting.
但目前还不必把通量电容器或故障保险装置搬出来
But no need to break out the flux capacitors or the failsafe machines just yet.
感谢您在《心理科学秀》与我们一起学习大脑的奥秘
Thanks for learning about these brain mysteries with us here at SciShow Psych,
也特别感谢在Patreon上赞助我们的人
and thanks especially to our patrons on Patreon.
如果您想支持我们的节目
If you want to support us as we make all these videos and
看看我们分享世界的奇妙之处
share how fascinating our universe is,
可以访问 patreon.com/scishow
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
[结尾音乐]
[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

当你移动视线和眨眼的时候,大脑到底做了哪些事?让我们一起来学习大脑中眼跳反应的奥秘吧。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

路痴

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ONY2OCmDak

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