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为什么你不想乘坐苏联协和飞机—144超音速客机 – 译学馆
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为什么你不想乘坐苏联协和飞机—144超音速客机

Why You Wouldn't Want to Fly On The Soviet Concorde - The TU-144 Story

协和式飞机可以在三小时
The Concorde could rip across the Atlantic
内飞跃太平洋
in just over three hours, twice
比现代飞机要快上两倍
as fast as any modern-day airliner.
而且你还可以优雅的喝着香槟
Andyou’d do it in style while sipping champagne.
等等
Wait a minute…
这不是协和式啊?
This isn’tConcorde!
这是仅有的两个商业化的载客超音速喷气式飞机之一
This is the only other supersonic jet to ever carry commercial passengers. No,
这不是协和式 这是前苏联的图波列夫-144确实
this isn’t Concorde. This is theSoviet Union’s Tupolev 144.
这玩意
And yes, it looks
长得和协和式一样但是坐着它飞行和
like the Concorde but flying on this thing was nothing
协和式完全不同
like the Concorde.
图-144更像是协和式的疯狂姐姐
The Tu-144 was kind oflike the Concord’s crazy older sister.
她很吵闹 很不舒服而且还有点危险
She was loud, uncomfortable and a littledangerous.
但是144的故事
But the 144 story is
绝对值得讲述 它很明显的抄袭了很多协和式的设计
definitely worth telling.It clearly knocked off a lot of the
协和式的设计 你看看就知道了
Concord’s design – just look at –
但事实上她也做了一些改进
it but it actually did some things better, like
比如说她可以承载更多旅客 甚至还能飞得更快
carry more passengers, it even flewfaster.
但是最终144的故事
But ultimately the 144’s story is
是关于伪造的
about faking it.
关于欺骗了世界的
About deceiving theworld.
1960年代在建造超音速喷气式客机
In the 1960’s the race to build a
的比赛中——当然那个时候
supersonic passenger jet, well it was more
有更多飞的更快的
than about just flying fast, it was
但是这是关于前苏联和西方各自维护他们的
about asserting superiority for both theSoviets and the West.
权威的事情
And the race to be
最开始这场比赛其实有三位选手:
the first actually started as athree-way between the Americans with
美国和他的半成品波音2707 英法联合研制的协和式
their half-baked Boeing 2707, the jointBritish-French Concorde, and the Soviets
和前苏联的
with their Tu-144.
图-144 美国选手因为
The Americans ruinedtheir shot by tying themselves up in
自身的官僚主义和超预算而前功尽弃 这让协和计划稳固的走在最前沿
bureaucracy and cost overruns, this put the Concorde project firmly in the lead.
而前苏联因为科技树没点
The Soviets who had more primitive
上来所以需要加紧步伐
technology had a lot of catching up to do,
他们靠的是
so they relied
美好的前苏联创意……和一大堆
on good old Soviet ingenuity.. oh and they stole a whole
从协和计划偷过来的东西
bunch from the Concorde program.
早期苏联间谍窃取了超过9万份
Early on Soviet spies made out with over 90,000
协和式和其他飞机的技术文件
technical documents on the Concorde and other aircraft
以助他们赶上
so they caught up to the
协和计划 最终144赶在协和式之前两个月完成首飞
Concorde program and the 144 took flighttwo months before Concorde
很明显协和式的设计重点在乘客的舒适性上面
It’s obvious the Concorde was designedaround passenger experience. Journalists
记者们惊叹于超音速飞行的
marveled at how quiet and smooth
安静和飞行的稳定性
supersonic flight was and how flight
空姐们甚至可以在给乘客斟上一杯马丁尼的时候毫无障碍的与他
attendants had no trouble chatting uppassengers while they served martinis.
交流
In
但是在144上面?当然鱼子酱和香槟都是有的
the 144? Well caviar and champagne were also brought out,
但是西方记者们
but Western journalists
更迷恋于于狭窄的椅子
fixated on the cramped seats,
会突然自行关闭的窗户挡光板
window shades that would suddenly drop without
以及有些厕所甚至出现故障
being pulled, and that some of thebathrooms weren’t even working.
144使用的落后的引擎和冷却系统共同产生了巨大的噪音
The 144’s more primitive engines and coolingsystem worked together to produce a
让乘客之间无法互相交流
sound so loud that passengers couldn’ttalk to one another.
取而代之的是
Instead they had to
他们只能传手写纸条 而这种传纸条的交流方式
pass around handwritten notes andplaying pass the note with other
肯定牺牲了这趟飞行的富裕感
passengers must have killed some of theopulence.
乘坐图-144飞行
Not that flying on the 144
绝对不会是一次正常的体验 在莫斯科到阿拉木图
was ever going to be a normal experience.
哈萨克斯坦的漫长旅途中
The plane only ever saw passenger
只有一次客舱
service on a single lonely route betweenMoscow and Almaty, Kazakhstan.
服务
The thing
问题是144的引擎实在是太耗油
is the 144’s engines burned so much fuel,
以至于它不能飞太远
it couldn’t actually fly much further,
连横跨苏联本土都做不到
it couldn’t even cross theSoviet Union.
对比协和式飞机
Compare that to the Concorde,
它的路线可以跨越大洲和海洋
its route spanned continents
而图144每周只飞一班
and oceans and the Tu-144 flew only once
尽管有资料显示还有七架飞机可以随时
a week, even though there were seven more certified and ready for service.
服役
This
这展示了前苏联的领导们对图144抱
shows how confident Soviet leaders werein the 144.
有多大的信心 在102次航班中发生了226次机械故障
Out of 102 scheduled flights there were 226 mechanical failures,
而其中80个
80 of which were
严重到导致延误或者取消
serious enough to delay or canceled theflight altogether.
航班
The possibility of 144
图144载客飞行途中坠毁的可能性很高成为了它的潜在危险
crashing with passengers on board was a huge political risk. From
最开始的空气动力学就存在严重的问题
the very beginning the one full force air worthiness was in serious question.
在1973年的巴黎航展中
It crashed in front of thousands
她在成千上万的观察员面前坠毁
of spectators during the 1973 Paris Air Show.
之后的1978年一架货运版本的TU-144因为燃油管破裂而坠毁
Then again in 1978 when a cargo version
而1981年因为她
went down after a fuel line rupture.
因为引擎爆炸而紧急降落
Andyet again in 1981 one suffered an engine explosion,
问题在于TU-144
forcing an emergency landing.
很明显的在赶进度
The problem was the Tu-144 had clearly
在前苏联看来
been rushed in its development.
赶在协和式之前造出来比
Gettingthis thing built before the Concorde was
把它造好更重要 所以144的引擎
more important for the Soviets than actually building it well,
只有有
and the 144’s
更少的资源和更差的技术
engineers had fewer resources andinferior technologies. But still, you
及时是这样也要把它实际制造出来
gotta hand it to them for actuallygetting it done.
协和式飞机的设计团队
The Concorde’s design
使用顶级的罗尔斯·罗伊斯奥林匹斯发动机和电脑控制的
team had state-of-the-art rolls-royceolympus engines with computer-controlled
进风口以达成一种叫做“超音速巡航“的状态
engine inlets that allowed for something called super cruise.
这样一旦协和式达到超音速
So once Concorde reachedsupersonic
她那烧油的
her fuel thirsty
后燃器可以在保持超音速的情况下被关掉
after burners could be switched off while still maintaining supersonic.
图-144的工程师只能
Tu-144 engineers had to make do
用那种需要持续使用
with engines that needed continuous
后燃器以保持超音速的引擎 协和式飞机有一对特制的机翼
afterburners to maintain supersonic. TheConcorde had a sophisticated wing
以保证在超音速和低速下飞行时达到最大效率
optimized for both supersonic andlow-speed flying, the Tu-144’s wing was
图-144的机翼 则只在超音速的
really only good for supersonic,
情况下好使 于是飞行员只能在
so pilots had to land the 144
较高速度下降落图-114
at higher speeds,
这种野蛮的降落方式甚至让飞机装备了减速伞
making for brutally hard landings that even required a parachute.
前苏联人为了解决机翼的局限
The Soviets worked aroundtheir wing limitations by designing canards,
用一对放在飞机前部的小型的可以
little deploy-able wings at the front
释放出来的鸭翼
of the aircraft which would
来提升低速下的稳定性
improve low-speed stability.
但是铁幕两头的创新
But all theinnovation on both sides of the Iron
并不能改变超音速旅行实在是太贵了的现实
Curtain couldn’t overcome the realitythat supersonic travel was just too expensive.
在资本主义的西方
In the capitalist West
一张协和式飞机的机票是普通飞机的五六倍
you could price Concorde tickets at 5 or 6
于是协和式飞机变成
times what a regular flight would cost,
了浮光魅影
so the Concorde became about glitz and glamour,
但是在铁幕的这头
but on the other side
事情就变得很尴尬了
of the Iron Curtain things were a little bit
在共产主义的苏联
more awkward. Who exactly
谁应该乘坐图-144飞行?
in the Communist Soviet Union was supposed to
票价仅仅
fly aboard the Tu-144?
37
The price of a ticket was set
卢比
at just 37 rubles, not
不比你在普通航班上花得多
much more than you’d expect to pay
这也不足以抵充运营成本
on a regular flight and not nearly enough to
在14架协和式
cover operational costs.
飞机服役期间
The 14 Concordes that entered service found a small niche
存在一个为名人和富豪服务的商机
serving celebrities and the rich,
但是即使是那样协和式飞机自身依然是
but even with that Concorde itself was still
一个商业上的失败品
a commercial failure.
法国人和英国人烧了数十亿元来研发她
The French and theBritish had poured billions into
即使他们一开始就
developing it even as they knew very early
知道他们没法
on that they’d never be able to
销售几百架协和式飞机来回
sell hundreds of Concordes needed torecoup development costs.

But the 144
但是图-144在铁幕的另外一边并没有
without the same premium niche to fill on the other side
这样豪华的商机
of the Iron Curtain,
也只能作为一个宣传工具和面子
could only ever be used as a propaganda tool and a prestige project.
工程
The Concorde
协和式飞机在载客服役了27年以后于2003年全部退役
would ferry passengers for 27 years up until it was retired in 2003.
而图
The Tu-144?
-144呢?
Well it
在载客生涯还没满一年的情况下
was retired from regular passenger service
便退役
not even a full year after it

started.

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