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每天都要排便?请别再忧虑

Why you shouldn't worry about pooping once a day | Body Stuff with Dr. Jen Gunter

How often do you poop?
您多久排便一次?
You might have heard you should have a bowel movement once a day
也许您听说过每天应该排便一次
But the truth is that if you poop anywhere from three times a day to three times a week,
但真相是 无论您一天三次 还是一周三次
you’re completely and totally normal.
都是完全完全正常的
(Music)
[音乐]
[Body Stuff with Dr. Jen Gunter]
[Jen Gunter医生谈身体那些事儿]
(Music)
[音乐]
Hey there, it’s Dr. Jen Gunter.
嘿 我是Jen Gunter医生
As an ob-gyn and pain-medicine doctor,
作为一名妇产科和疼痛医学科的医生
I end up talking to my patients about poop more than you might think.
我和我的病人讨论大便的次数比你想象的多
Overall, I hear a lot of anxiety about it.
总的来说 我听过许多关于此的焦虑
Some people worry about not having a bowel movement once a day,
有些人担心一天没有排便一次
even though its a phony metric.
即使这是一个虚假指标
Other people struggle with constipation.
还有一些人在与便秘作斗争
Often, they don’t get the treatment that they need,
他们通常得不到所需的治疗
and they can even turn to dangerous solutions,
甚至会转而寻求危险的解决方案
such as colon cleanses.
比如结肠清洗
But for all the poop talk, there’s one word I don’t hear enough —
但是在所有关于便便的讨论中 有一个词很少被提及——
fiber.
纤维素
Let me take you through the journey from food to poop.
那么请让我来告诉你 食物是如何变成大便的
Digestion actually starts in the mouth.
消化其实从口腔就开始了
Chewing breaks the food down into smaller particles.
咀嚼使食物分解成更小的颗粒
As you eat, your food mixes with saliva,
当你进食时 食物和唾液混合
which moistens the food,
唾液使食物湿润
and has enzymes that start to break down those starches and fats.
而唾液中的酶开始分解食物中的淀粉和脂肪
Contractions in your esophagus push the food to your stomach,
食道的收缩将食物推向胃部
where acid and gastric juices and enzymes further break the food down.
在那里 胃酸 胃液和酶会进一步分解食物
The food then travels to the small intestine,
然后食物进入小肠
where fats, proteins, carbohydrates and micronutrients
在胰腺 胆囊 肝脏和微生物群的帮助下
are further broken down, with help from the pancreas, gallbladder, liver
食物中的脂肪 蛋白质 碳水化合物和微量元素
and the microbiome,
被进一步分解
so they can be absorbed across the small intestine
进而通过小肠被人体吸收
and sent to the liver for processing.
并运送到肝脏进行处理
What’s left moves to the large intestine or the colon,
而食物残渣会进入结肠
which has three main jobs:
结肠有三个主要任务:
absorbing water and electrolytes, producing and absorbing vitamins
吸收水分和电解质 生产和吸收维生素
and forming and squeezing the material, now called stool,
以及将残渣挤压成型 变成所谓的粪便
towards the rectum.
并将其推到直肠
When the rectum is full, it sends a signal to the brain,
当直肠被粪便填满时 它会向大脑发出信号
and the brain takes into account whether it’s a socially acceptable time to poop,
大脑会考虑现在是否是一个可接受的排便时间
and if it is, it sends a signal to the anal sphincter muscles to relax.
如果是的话 大脑就会向肛门括约肌发出信号使其放松
And boom, you know what happens next.
然后砰一下 你知道会发生什么
This process involves more than 10 organs
这个过程涉及到十多个器官
and typically takes anywhere from 24 to 120 hours
对健康人而言 完成这一过程通常需要
in healthy people.
24到120个小时
So it’s helpful to think of poop as exactly what it is —
其实我们可以将大便理解为–
all the stuff that doesn’t get digested in this process.
所有未得到消化的东西
It is water, bacteria, dead cells and mucus,
也就是水 细菌 死细胞以及黏液
all glommed together with fiber.
与纤维的混合物
Fiber is amazing.
纤维真的很棒
It affects the digestive tract from top to bottom.
它从上到下影响着消化道
It is very simply a carbohydrate the body can’t absorb.
纤维就是一种人体无法吸收的碳水化合物
While other carbs are broken down into sugars,
而其他碳水化合物则能够被分解成糖
fiber passes by sort of moseying along, doing all kinds of cool things.
纤维漫步溜达着经过 做着各种酷酷的事情
High-fiber foods physically take longer to eat,
高纤维食物需要更长的时间才能吃完
so they help us pace our meals.
因此 它们可以帮助我们调整饮食节奏
The bulk also slows down digestion, especially in the stomach,
纤维性植物也会减缓消化速度 尤其在胃部
and makes you feel full longer.
会让你有更久的饱腹感
Fiber also draws water into the stool, keeping it soft.
纤维还能将水分吸入粪便中使之柔软
Scratchy, hard stool is, to put it mildly, unpleasant.
说得委婉点 粗糙坚硬的粪便实在让人恼火
It also increases bacterial mass.
纤维也能增加菌群数量
The water and bacteria together increase the bulk of the stool,
水和细菌都增加了粪便的体积
which helps it move along.
这有助于粪便的移动
Fiber also slows absorption of sugars into the bloodstream
纤维还能减缓血液对糖分的吸收
and reduces absorption of fats and cholesterols.
并减少对脂肪和胆固醇的吸收
And as fiber collects in your colon,
当纤维在结肠聚集时
it feeds all your good gut bacteria,
它会滋养所有有益的肠道细菌
helping you maintain a healthy microbiome.
帮助你保持健康的微生物群
Fiber is associated with the reduced risk of diabetes,
纤维有助于降低患糖尿病
heart disease, several gastrointestinal conditions
心脏疾病 各种胃肠道疾病
and even certain cancers.
甚至个别癌症的风险
And yet, most of us aren’t getting enough of it.
然而 大多数人并没有认识到纤维的重要性
For example, in the US,
例如 在美国
the vast majority of adults
绝大多数成年人
aren’t eating the recommended 28 grams of fiber per day.
没能每天摄入建议的28克纤维
In fact, the average American just gets 15 grams of fiber a day.
事实上 美国人平均每天只摄入15克纤维
So how exactly do you get more fiber?
那么究竟怎样才能摄入更多的纤维呢?
The generic answer is to eat more whole grains,
一般的回答都是多吃全谷物
fruits, vegetables and legumes.
水果 蔬菜和豆类
But I want you to consider some more specific fiber-rich foods
但是我希望你能考虑一些更具体的富含纤维的食物
that I personally love:
我个人很喜欢的是:
pears, raspberries and blackberries, avocados and artichokes,
梨 树莓和黑莓 鳄梨和洋蓟
high-fiber cereals, whole grains — my favorite is farro —
高纤维谷物 全谷物 其中我最爱的是法罗
lentils, kidney beans and chickpeas.
扁豆 芸豆和鹰嘴豆
Almonds, pistachios and sunflower seeds are other options.
其他选择还有杏仁 开心果和葵花籽
When in doubt, reach for those.
当你有疑问时 就去吃这些吧
And happy pooping.
祝你排便顺利!

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视频概述

Jen Gunter医生带你讨论身体那些事儿:粪便产生的过程以及纤维对人体的重要性

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Arya

审核员

审核员SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btQHSDrLlok

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