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为什么说不要依赖保健品? – 译学馆
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为什么说不要依赖保健品?

Why You Shouldn't RELY on Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

【片头音乐】
[Intro]
1978年 一个6岁的女孩因受严重枪伤被送往医院抢救
In 1978, a six-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital with a serious gunshot wound.
为修复其受伤的腹部 医生实施了一系列手术
A long series of operations to repair her abdomen were performed.
过程中 女孩体内超过三米长的消化道被切除
And in the process, more than three meters of her gastrointestinal tract were removed,
以至于她在手术后的几个月内都无法消化食物
leaving her unable to digest food for months.
她只能靠注射营养液存活
She had to survive on a form of liquid nutrition injected directly into the bloodstream
这种营养液叫做“全胃肠外营养” 简称TPN
called total parenteral nutrition TPN.
为补充人体必需的脂肪酸
To avoid essential fatty acid deficiency,
不得不在这种营养液中添加脂肪
fat had to be supplemented to the TPN.
医院在营养液中添加的脂肪提取自红花籽油
The fat this hospital used in the girl’s TPN “meal” came from safflower oil,
红花籽油富含亚油酸 但阿尔法亚麻酸含量较低
which is very rich in linoleic acid and low in alpha linolenic acid.
在接下来的几个月里
Over the following months,
她的神经系统开始出现各种各样的问题
she gradually started to experience various neurological symptoms,
脚底变得麻木
the bottoms of her feet became numb,
而且向小腿扩散 并伴有钝痛
and they spread to her lower legs along with a dull pain.
她变得极度虚弱
She experienced episodes of drastic weakness,
视线也开始变得模糊
and her eyesight became blurred.
于是医生将她营养液中的脂肪替换成了大豆油
They then switched the girl over to a soybean oil supplemented TPN.
和红花籽油相比 大豆油中阿尔法亚麻酸(欧米伽-3脂肪酸中的一种)的含量要高十倍
Soybean oil has ten times more of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid compared to safflower oil.
换了营养液后 女孩的病情开始慢慢好转
And after the switch, her symptoms slowly resolved.
这一案例揭示了欧米伽-3脂肪酸的重要性
This is one way the importance of omega-3 fatty acids came to light.
有趣的是 这种可注射的TPN营养液
The funny thing is, this injectable TPN solution
让我联想到了一种叫做Soylent的代餐粉
kind of reminds me of the meal replacement Soylent.
硅谷企业家罗伯•莱茵哈特
Silicon Valley entrepreneur Rob Rhinehart
在2013年左右有了发明Soylent的想法
came up with the idea for Soylent sometime around 2013
他认为可以将人体所需的各种营养素混合 制作成奶昔可代替正餐
when he figured you could just mixup all the nutrients the body needs in a shake and drink that instead of food.
这种代餐粉的名字源于1973年的一部叫做《超世纪谍杀案》的电影
The name comes from the 1973 movie Soylent Green,
在电影里 由于人口过剩
where thanks to overpopulation,
一份瑞典式自助餐要279美元
this smorgasbord of food costs 279 dollars,
一罐草莓要150美元
strawberries are 150 bucks a jar.
每逢周二“绿色食品日”
And Tuesday is Soylent Green Day,
你可以吃到神奇的 像饼干一样的营养食品 而其原材料为
where you can get the miracle nutritious cracker-like food made of…
人肉 我们得阻止这么干啊
“People! We gotta stop!”
别担心 实际上 Soylent代餐粉中不含人肉
Don’t worry, actual Soylent contains no people.
这就引出了一个有趣的问题
This brings up an interesting question.
依靠摄入各种营养素的混合物
Is it okay to rely on a mixture of isolated nutrients
能满足人体日常所需吗?
to meet our body’s needs?
我指的不是Soylent代餐粉
I’m not referring to soylent,
而是多种复合维生素和补充剂
but multivitamins and supplements.
补充剂让很多人受益匪浅
Supplements have greatly benefited to many people,
能帮助人们获取日常所需的关键营养素
helping them reach adequate levels of key nutrients.
但是 维生素和矿物质令人相当困惑
However, vitamins and minerals are confusing,
因为它们之间存在着许多复杂的相互作用
because there are a lot of complex interactions between them.
你会发现补充剂上的标签并不相同
And when you look at different supplement labels,
以叶酸为例 有些标签上标的是叶酸(Folic Acid)
you’ll see one list Folate as Folic Acid
而另一些标签上标的却是L-5甲基四氢叶酸
while another one list as L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate.
同时有的产品当中的维生素A是β-胡萝卜素
Then, one might be providing Vitamin A as beta-carotene
而另一些则是视黄醇棕榈酸酯 等等
while another one provides it as retinol palmitate and so on.
这个视频的主要目的是教会大家
The point of this video is to educate
同时 希望能让你产生困惑感进而加重对补充剂的好奇
and hopefully confuse you enough to get you more curious about supplements.
这样你就可以用一种更系统的方法补充营养素
So you’ll take a more organized approach to using them
而不仅仅是每天服用一个复合维生素丸
rather than just taking a multivitamin and calling it a day.
想要健康成长?牛奶中的钙可以帮助骨骼发育
让我们先从钙说起吧
Let’s start with calcium.
钙应该对我们的骨骼发育是有好处的
It’s supposed to be good for our bones,
所以我们应该确保摄入足量的钙
so we ought to make sure and get plenty of it.
好消息是 通过摄入膳食钙
What’s great is dietary calcium
不会导致心脏病和肾结石
has been shown to be inversely related to heart disease and kidney stones.
但是钙补充剂就不同了
However, the opposite is true for calcium supplements.
这是伊恩•里德博士关于
Here is Doctor Ian Reid presenting data
钙补充剂对心脏病发作影响的数据
on the effect of calcium supplementation on heart attacks.
人们期望额外的钙可以预防心脏病
They were expecting extra calcium would be preventative of heart attacks.
在这里我们确实可以看到钙补充剂
And here we do see a nice statistically significant separation
和安慰剂的两行统计数据
of the two lines of data for subjects
存在着明显的分离
on calcium supplement and subjects on placebo.
唯一的问题是 线条在错误的方向分开
The only problem is the lines separated in the wrong directions.
钙补充剂增加了心脏病的发病风险
Calcium supplementation increased the risk for heart attack.
至于其背后的潜在机制是这样的
As for potential mechanisms behind this,
在你服用钙补充剂后8小时内
in the 8 hours after you take a calcium supplement,
血液中的钙含量会大幅上升
your blood calcium shoots up.
服用钙补充剂会导致两种主要后果
Two important consequences of a calcium supplement
一是升高血压
is that it raises your blood pressure
二是增加血液粘稠性
and the coagulability of the blood goes up.
这会使血液更容易凝结
It makes your blood clot more.
导致心血管疾病的主要原因是:
The primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease,
肥胖 糖尿病 抽烟等
obesity, diabetes, smoking and so on
这些都与血小板的活性和凝血有关
are all linked to platelet activation and clotting.
钙补充剂这个例子 可以证明为什么从食物中 摄取营养素更好
Calcium supplements are an example of why it’s good to rely on food for nutrients by default.
补钙刚开始听起来是不错
Supplementing calcium sounds like a good idea at first,
但是多年的研究数据表明 好像并不是这样
but it took years of data to find out that it’s not.
类似于之前在医院里缺乏欧米伽-3脂肪酸的小女孩的故事
Similar to the earlier story of the little girl in the hospital lacking omega-3 fatty acids,
存在于西兰花和蛋黄中的胆碱
choline found in things like broccoli and egg yolks
是静脉注射液缺失的另一样营养素
was another thing missing for a while from intravenously delivered nutrition.
不幸的是 如果静脉注射液中缺乏胆碱
Unfortunately, the consequence of leaving choline out of IV nutrition
病人往往会长出脂肪肝
was that the subjects often developed fatty liver.
研究者在1995年发现
It was found in 1995 that choline deficiency results in fatty liver
缺乏胆碱会导致脂肪肝 但也可以通过补充胆碱来逆转
and that choline supplementation reverses it.
但直到1998年 胆碱才正式被医学研究所认定为人体必需营养素
Choline wasn’t officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine until 1998.
这里的重点是 在营养方面
The point here, is that in nutrition,
就像假定我们有拼图游戏的所有拼块一样
assuming we have all the pieces to the puzzle
但我们还是遇到了问题
has gotten us in trouble.
另一个依靠天然食物摄取营养的原因是
Another reason to rely on whole natural foods by default
它们可能包含一些我们虽然还不熟知但却很重要的物质
because they may contain important substances we are not yet familiar with.
下面是些忠告
There are some caveats though.
如果你每天吃一根胡萝卜
If you eat just one carrot every day,
就能提供人体必需的维生素A
that provides all the Vitamin A you need to survive.
Veritasium频道的德里克•穆勒
Derek Muller of Veritasium recently talked about
通过一个制作精良且十分有趣的纪录片《维生素狂热》
vitamins in a well produced
谈了有关维生素的问题
and very interesting documentary called Vitamania.
虽然他 每天一根胡萝卜可提供人体所需维生素A的观点可能是对的
While he may be correct that you can survive on the vitamin A from 1 carrot a day,
但是吃胡萝卜却未必是补充维生素A最好的选择
it’s very unlikely that this is optimal.
因为胡萝卜所含的并不是维生素A
This is because carrots don’t contain Vitamin A
而是一种叫做β-胡萝卜素的类胡萝卜素
but a carotenoid called beta-carotene,
它是一种“维生素原” 一种可以转化成维生素的物质
which is a provitamin, a substance that can be converted into a vitamin.
根据美国医学专家组研究所关于微量营养素一书
According to this book from the US Institute of Medicine Panel on Micronutrients,
β-胡萝卜素的维生素活性只有维生素A(视黄醇)的十二分之一
beta-carotene has 1/12 the vitamin activity of proper vitamin A retinol.
这项研究发现 混合性膳食中的β-胡萝卜素的生物效能仅为二十一分之一
This study found that the bioefficacy of beta-carotene from a mixed diet is only 1:21.
这主要是因为β-胡萝卜素与难以消化的纤维基质结合在一起
This is mostly because the beta-carotene is bound up in a hard to digest fiber matrix.
胡萝卜中还有其它类胡萝卜素
Carrots have other carotenoids, but for beta-carotene,
如果和油一同食用 β-胡萝卜素的吸收率可提高7倍
you’d actually absorb about 7 times more beta-carotene if you took it suspended in oil.
为什么要和油一同食用呢?
So why in oil ?
因为维生素A是一种脂溶性维生素
Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin,
需要油脂的帮助才能被人体正常吸收
you need fat to absorb and assimilate it properly.
因此俄亥俄州的这项研究发现言之有理
So it makes sense that this research from Ohio state
是说 牛油果有助于类胡萝卜素(如β-胡萝卜素)的吸收
found that avocado is a good way to help absorb carotenoids like beta-carotene
并将其转化为维生素A
and convert them to Vitamin A.
与单吃胡萝卜相比
More than 12 times as much vitamin A was formed
将胡萝卜和牛油果一同食用 可以使维生素A的吸收率提高十二倍
when carrots were eaten with avocado than without it.
另一方面
On the other hand
这项研究得出结论:即使在控制条件下检测
this study concluded that β-carotene conversion to Vitamin A,
β-胡萝卜素的维生素A转化率仍出奇的低且不稳定
even when measured under controlled conditions can be surprisingly low and variable.
这可能是因为基因差异
This could be due to genetic differences.
事实上 经过唾液采集检测发现
In fact, spitting in a tube has taught me that
我对β-胡萝卜素的转化就不是很好 只有32%左右
I don’t convert beta-Carotene very well,by about 32%.
这是因为我的BCMO1基因具有单核苷酸基因多态性
This is because of a particular single nucleotide polymorphism on my BCMO1 gene.
最后一点是 类胡萝卜素的吸收效率随着饮食中
One last thing, the absorption efficiency of carotenoids decreases
类胡萝卜素摄入的升高而降低
as the amount of dietary carotenoids increases.
因此想通过大量食用胡萝卜来使体内的维生素A达到最佳水平
So it’s doubtful that you can just cram down more and more carrots
这样的做法就值得怀疑了
to get optimal Vitamin A levels.
β-胡萝卜之类的类胡萝卜素除了能转化为维生素A以外还有其它功能
Carotenoids like beta-carotene have their own functions other than just conversion to vitamin A,
所以最好通过饮食来补充
so it’s good to have them in the diet.
但是你不能指望β-胡萝卜素
But you wouldn’t want to rely on the provitamin beta-carotene
来满足人体对维生素A的需求
to meet your Vitamin A requirements.
获取维生素A的更好来源是 鱼卵 鱼肝油
It would be better to get your vitamin A from fish roe or cod liver oil,
优质蛋黄以及肝脏之类的食物 而不是β-胡萝卜素
good quality egg yolks, liver rather than beta-carotene.
如果你非要吃胡萝卜
And when you do eat carrots,
最好伴着黄油或者牛油果一起吃
eat them with some butter or maybe an avocado.
另一个重要的例子就是
Another example of form being important is
补充叶酸
when you’re getting your folate.
在纪录片《维生素狂热》里也提到了一个案例
This also comes up in the Vitamania documentary.
似乎是由于体内缺乏足够的叶酸
It seemed that due to insufficient folate,
金•罗宾斯生下来背部就有一个血管瘤
Kim Robbins was born with a hemangioma on his back
结果证实是神经管缺陷
which turned out to be a neural tube defect
实际就是说他的脊柱上有个洞
effectively a hole in his spinal column.
这导致他大半生只能在轮椅上度过
This leaves him spending most of his time in a wheelchair.
他还患有痉挛性的背痛 每天大约会发作200次
He also has spasm-like back pain give or take 200 times a day.
为了预防神经管缺陷
To prevent neural tube defects,
妈妈们需要在备孕期补充足量的叶酸
mothers need to have sufficient folate levels before the start of pregnancy.
因此 在2009年
For this reason, in 2009,
澳大利亚的面包开始添加叶酸
Australian bread began being fortified with folic acid.
要求所有制作面包的面粉里都要添加叶酸
It must be added to all wheat flour for bread making.
这种努力看来是值得的
This was a worthwhile effort, it seems,
因为神经管缺陷率已经减少了一半
as the rate of neural tube defects has halved.
但是 这个问题并没有彻底解决
However, the case on this is not quite closed.
这篇综述中提到 有大比例的女性
As this review points out a substantial proportion of women
在备孕期都服用了叶酸
who take folic acid supplements before pregnancy
但仍然会生出有神经管畸形的孩子
still give birth to Neural Tube Defect-affected infants.
《肮脏的基因》一书的作者本杰明•林奇博士
Dr. Benjamin Lynch, author of the book Dirty Genes
通过非常出色的研究工作来解释了为什么会出现这种情况
has done an excellent job explaining why this may be the case.
你看 和我们之前讨论的 β-胡萝卜素和维生素A的情况类似
You see, similar to our earlier discussion with beta-carotene and vitamin A,
“叶酸”(folic acid)并不是叶酸(folate)
“ folic acid” is not folate.
叶酸(folic acid)是人工合成的
Folic acid is synthetic, it must be converted into
必须转化成5-甲基四氢叶酸或者甲基叶酸才对人体有用
5-methyl tetraHydroFolate or just methyl folate to be useful.
甲基化的叶酸才是真正起作用的维生素
Methyl folate is the actual vitamin that gets things done.
而要将合成叶酸转化成甲基叶酸
And a crap-ton of work has to be done
是非常费劲的
to transform folic acid into methyl folate.
合成叶酸被认为是对人体非常重要的补充剂
It was thought that folic acid would be a great supplement for humans
因为对老鼠进行的研究表明 它们的二氢叶酸还原酶
because of studies done on rats showing that their DHFR enzyme.
是将合成叶酸转化为甲基叶酸的第一步
The first step in transforming folic acid
并且这种酶的催化效率很高
into methyl folate works very efficiently.
然而在人体内 这种酶的作用效率却非常低
However, the efficiency of this enzyme in actual humans is way lower.
本文的标题是这样说的
The title of this paper describes
二氢叶酸还原酶在人体的作用速度很慢
the human DHFR enzyme activity has been
并且极度不稳定的
extremely slow and variable.
所以当你服用大量合成叶酸时
So when you take a bunch of folic acid,
就会导致二氢叶酸还原酶在体内超负荷工作
this leads to the DHFR enzyme being overloaded
并且 大量未被代谢掉的合成叶酸会在体内滞留
and a lot of unmetabolized folic acid is left floating around.
但是合成叶酸本身对人体是没有任何作用的
But remember folic acid itself isn’t useful for anything
除非它能被转化
unless it’s been transformed.
可是在人体内它的转化率又是很低的
And it’s being transformed at a very slow rate.
其缺点是 服用合成叶酸是提高体内叶酸水平的低效方法
The downside of this is not just that folic acid is an inefficient way to up your folate levels,
但是因为很多原因 相比天然状态的叶酸
but that folic acid for some reason
合成叶酸能被人体吸收得更快
is much more rapidly absorbed than natural folates.
而且 叶酸受体对合成叶酸的偏好
And, the folate receptor has a much higher affinity,
远远高于实际有用的甲基叶酸
a much higher preference for folic acid than the actually useful methyl folate.
所以叶酸受体
So the folate receptor prefers
更喜欢合成叶酸 而不是甲基叶酸
folic acid getting all stuck to it than methyl folate.
哇 这可是个大问题啊
Whoa, that’s a huge problem.
我更想让甲基叶酸和我的叶酸受体结合 谢谢……
I prefer methyl folate binding to my folate receptor, thank you…
我可不想受体上结合的是合成叶酸 为什么呢?
I don’t want folic acid being stuck on there, why?
因为它们不参与任何活动
Because it doesn’t do anything!
它们是没有生理活性的
It’s not physiologically active.
合成叶酸阻碍了甲基叶酸发挥它的生理效应
Folic acid blocks the physiological effect of methyl folate.
你是想让甲基叶酸和受体结合
You want methyl folate binding to your receptor,
而不想让那个没用的东西霸占那儿的
you don’t want that crap sitting on it.”
林奇博士正在讨论的这种现象在本文中得到了呼应
This phenomenon Dr. Lynch is talking about is echoed in this paper:
合成叶酸进入大脑
The transport of folates into the brain is carried out
是通过脉络膜丛的叶酸受体完成的
by the folate receptor in the choroid plexus,
因此血液中的合成叶酸
so the folic acid in the blood
可能会抑制甲基叶酸进入大脑
might inhibit the transport of methyl folate into the brain.
这是个复杂的问题 一两句话是讲不清楚的
This is a complex topic with much more to be said.
但是重点是 为了保持人体内最佳的叶酸水平
But the point is, in order to maintain optimal folate levels,
你需要避免合成叶酸
you’d want to avoid folic acid
应尽量从绿叶蔬菜 肝脏或其它你喜欢的补充剂中获取叶酸
and get your folate from leafy greens, liver or if you’d like to supplement
但是得保证补充剂的标签上有这样的字样
make sure the supplement label says something like
5-五甲基四氢叶酸或5-MTHF或甲基-THF或只有甲基叶酸也行
5-MethylTetraHydroFolate or 5-MTHF or methyl-THF or just methyl folate.
亚叶酸是我这里没有时间讨论的另一种选择
Folinic acid is another option I didn’t have time to discuss,
请查阅说明以便获得更多信息
but see the description for more information on that.
最后我们要谈的一点是脂肪酸平衡
One last point is that of balance.
最近对欧米伽-6脂肪酸和欧米伽-3脂肪酸比例平衡问题的关注度好像很高
I think the Omega-6 to Omega-3 balance has gotten a lot of attention lately.
根据这篇2002年的论文
According to this 2002 paper,
人们饮食中的这两种必需脂肪酸的比例约为1:1
human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids of approximately 1 to 1.
但是在西方饮食中 这个比例是在15:1和16.7:1之间
Whereas in Westerns diets, the ratio is between 15 to 1 and 16.7 to 1.
因此那些市场上新的欧米伽-3脂肪酸类产品的理念
So the idea of all these new omega-3 products on the market
是提高这个比例
is to improve this ratio.
但是假如你在摄入大量的欧米伽-3脂肪酸的同时
But it doesn’t matter if you get a bunch of omega-3
接着再摄入大量的欧米伽-6脂肪酸 这是没有什么问题的
if you keep getting a bunch of omega-6.
另外一个很好的策略是减少欧米伽-6脂肪酸的摄入
Another good strategy would be to reduce your omega-6 intake.
同样地 很多其他营养素的量也都需要保持平衡
Similarly many other things need to be in balance.
例如维生素A和D
For example, Vitamin A and D.
这篇论文发现 当给予火鸡大剂量的维生素A
This paper found that when giving turkeys extremely high doses of vitamin A
和正常量的维生素D时
and normal doses of vitamin D,
火鸡会出现维生素A过多症 维生素A中毒
the turkeys had symptoms of hypervitaminosis A, vitamin A toxicity.
但是当给予火鸡大剂量的维生素D和正常量的维生素A时
But When they gave high vitamin D and normal vitamin A,
他们则会出现维生素D过多症
they got hypervitaminosis D.
但是当给予火鸡大剂量的维生素D和维生素A时
But when they got extremely high levels of both vitamins,
则没有出现任何症状
no symptoms showed up.
实验组的结果与对照组无明显差异
The results were no difference from controls.
关于这方面还有很多例子
There are several other examples of this,
但是能证明平衡复杂性的一个典型例子就是
but a great example of how complex this can get
不同矿物质的相互作用
is the interactions between the variousminerals.
看看这个小图表
Take a look at this little diagram.
这在帕斯沃和克兰顿的书《微量元素 头发分析和营养》中都有所体现
This shows up in Passwater and Cranton’s book Trace Elements, Hair Analysis and Nutrition.
他们称这为“矿物之轮”
And they call it the mineral wheel.
如果你摄入一种矿物质过多
If you have too much of one mineral,
它可能导致箭头指向的那种矿物质缺乏
it could cause a deficiency in whatever mineral its arrow is pointing to.
因此过量的钴会导致铁的缺乏
So excess cobalt could cause an iron deficiency
过量的铜会导致锌缺乏 等等
excess copper could deplete zinc and so on.
这一点不是为了吓唬你
The point of this isn’t to scare you
而是为了让你考虑一下微量元素的摄入
but just to have you consider things like:
在你补锌的时候考虑一下铜的摄入
look at your copper intake if your supplement zinc
或者在补锌的时候考虑一下你体内钾的水平
or consider your potassium or phosphorus levels
或者在纠正铁缺乏时要考虑你的磷的水平 等等
if you want to correct an iron deficiency and so on.
因此总而言之就是
So to sum all this up,
留意你要服用的补充剂的形式 以及它是如何被吸收的
pay attention to the form of supplement you’re getting and how it’s absorbed.
看看维生素和矿物质是怎么相互作用的
Look at how vitamins and minerals interact with each other
这样你就可以不让体内各种元素失衡
so you don’t throw yourself off balance.
如果可能 尽量选择天然食品来补充营养素
And if you can, try to default to getting your nutrients from whole foods.
本视频由在线社区
This video was brought to you by the online community
和虚拟教室“技能分享”提供
and virtual classroom Skillshare.
我喜欢“技能分享”的原因是
The thing I like about Skillshare
它针对每一个人 内容包罗万象
is that it has something for everyone.
你可以找到任何课程 从如何挑选优质牛肉或海产品
You can find courses on anything from how to select quality beef or seafood
到如何使用数码单反相机拍摄电影
to how to use DSLR cameras for flimmaking.
你可能已经注意到了我最近上传了
You may have noticed that I’ve been uploading
一些采访到这个频道
a couple of interviews to channel recently.
实际上这些都是去年录制的
These were actually filmed last year,
在那个时候 乔迪•旺达的这门课程真的派上了用场
and at the time, this course by Geordi Vonda put really came in handy,
即使在那之前我从来没有录制过采访
since I had never actually flimed an interview before that.
如果摄影不是你的菜
If camera work isn’t your thing,
那儿也有数千部其它有关设计
there’s still thousands more classes in design,
市场营销 商业和技术的课程
marketing, business and technology.
你在“技能分享”找到的课程都是专业的 有组织的
The classes you’ll find on Skillshare are professional,organized
并且有着非常清晰的和可操作的点
and have very clear and actionable points.
并且年度高级会员
And an annual premium membership
每月才不到十美元
is less than just ten dollars a month.
前五百名点击我在简介里的链接的人
The first 500 people to click my link in the description
可以免费获得两个月的“技能分享”高级会员
can get two months of Skillshare premium for free.
在那之后每月只需十美元
After that it’s as low as ten dollars a month
就能继续在“技能分享”上学习
to keep on learning with Skillshare.

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视频概述

该视频作者通过对既往病例和医学研究成果的分析,试图说明人们应该从健康的自然食品中获取满足机体需要的营养物质。

听录译者

Lontar

翻译译者

西西弗与加缪

审核员

审核员_J

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWiC4ZCS55Y

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