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为什么要自己先戴氧气罩,再给孩子戴? – 译学馆
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为什么要自己先戴氧气罩,再给孩子戴?

Why You Should Put YOUR MASK On First (My Brain Without Oxygen) - Smarter Every Day 157

好了 我要开足马力了
All right, I’ll make it super fast.
我是达斯汀 欢迎再次观看《机灵日》
It’s me, Destin. Welcome back to SmarterEveryDay.
你坐飞机的时候 如果机舱失压
When you’re in a jet, if the cabin depressurizes,
氧气面罩就会从上面掉出来
they drop this little mask out of the top.
如果飞机在1.5万英尺高度时 舱内失压
What happens if you’re in a depressurized cabin and
而你拿掉了面罩 会发生什么?
you’re up above 15,000 feet and you drop your mask?
此时你的身体会陷入“缺氧症”
Something called hypoxia takes effect
而你必须想办法摆脱它
and you got to do something about that.
让我们每天都变得更聪明!
Let’s get smarter every day!
[音乐]
[MUSIC]
你之前一定听过航班安全提示
You’ve heard the flight attendants say this before,
“先戴好自己的面罩 再帮助他人”
“Secure your own mask before helping others.”
但是为什么?
But why?
这么说的理由是什么?
Why did they say that?
用30秒给旁边的小孩戴上面罩
Is the 30 seconds it takes to put on a kid’s mask next to me
真有那么危险吗?
really that important?
15年前 我就知道问题的答案
15 years ago I learned the answer to this question
那时我在美国宇航局约翰逊航天中心
when I was selected to participate
被选中参加美国国家航空航天局的
in NASA’s Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program
“微重力学生飞行机会计划“
at NASA’s Johnson Space Center.
在我乘坐减重力飞机之前
Before I got to ride in the Vomit Comet
我必须在中性浮力实验室的低压舱
I had to undergo physiological training
进行生理训练
in a hypobaric chamber at the neutral buoyancy lab.
快进到现在
Fast forward to now.
今天 宇航员唐·佩蒂要更新他的低氧训练认证
Today, astronaut Don Pettit is scheduled to renew his hypoxia training certification
我问他可不可以让我一起参加
and I asked him if it would be okay if I tagged along
我和他先在中性浮力实验室里的
let me swim a few laps with him over the International
国际空间站模型里游几圈
Space Station mock-up in the neutral buoyancy lab
然后再一起到隔壁接受培训
before we headed over next door for Don’s training.
你看起来像只落水狗
You look like something the dog dragged in.
我觉得也是
I feel like it, too.
缺氧训练的目的是
The purpose of hypoxia training
让宇航员和飞行员认识到
is to let astronauts and aviators know
大脑即将缺氧的感觉
when their brain’s about to stop working correctly,
这是非常非常重要的
which is very, very important.
如果你处于高海拔的飞机上
If you’re at a high altitude in an airplane,
尽管这里空气稀薄 但机舱内是加压的
the air is thinner but the cabin is pressurized,
所以你的身体有足够的氧气维持运转
so your body gets enough oxygen to operate.
为了模拟机舱减压
To simulate cabin depressurization,
NASA让宇航员进入与海平面齐平的舱室
NASA puts its astronauts in a chamber at sea level
然后抽出空气 降低里面的气压
and then pumps the air out to thin it out,
这样就可以模拟更高海拔的环境
so that it simulates a higher altitude.
唐训练的第一个环节是理论知识
Don’s training starts with class work
重点是了解自己身体缺氧时
focused on understanding the specific signs
所表现出的体征和症状
and symptoms of hypoxia in his own body.
这项训练的目的是了解自己的生理症状
The goal of this training is to understand your own physiological symptoms
这样你才能快速采取行动
so that you can take action quickly.
比如 唐的症状表现为
For example, Don said he experiences
“隧道视野”和“呼吸急促”
tunnel vision and air hunger,
但我记得15年前 我接受训练时
but I remember for my training 15 years ago
我的症状是“异常兴奋”和“全身刺痛”
that get really happy and start to tingle all over
我没法跟你正经说话 你的样子太好笑了
I can’t take you seriously because this is what you look like.
你什么意思啊?我这样子多正常
What do you mean? I look perfectly normal.
[达斯汀的笑声]
[giggling]
我们的实验是这样的
This is the experiment we’re going to do:
我和唐同时进入低压舱
Don and I are both going to enter the hypobaric chamber
模拟2.5万英尺的海拔高度
at the same time and fly to FL250,
到达高度后我们会摘下面罩
at which point we are going to remove our masks
开始体验“缺氧症”的感觉
and start to experience the effects of hypoxia.
唐是“控制组”
Don is the control.
他是一名训练有素的宇航员
He’s a trained astronaut
他能准确识别出缺氧的症状
who recognizes the symptoms for hypoxia
并立即采取正确行动
and immediately corrects for them.
至于我
I, on the other hand,
我在NASA航空军医的指导下
am under the direct supervision of a NASA flight surgeon
在我感觉到缺氧的症状后
and after I notice the effects of hypoxia,
我问过是否可以让我坚持一分钟
I’ve asked if I could delay for about one minute
使人更好的理解不及时戴面罩
so we can better understand the physiological effects
所造成的生理影响
of not immediately putting your mask on.
准备好 我们就要开始了
OK, here we go, we’re getting set up.
在杰瑞帮我佩戴装置时
While Jerry gets me situated,
我来介绍失压的两种类型
I’m going to talk about the two types of decompression:
第一种是“急速失压”
Number one, rapid decompression
这个感觉就像经历爆炸
this is like being inside of an explosion.
压力让你的身体迅速膨胀
You dump all your pressure instantly,
空气中布满冷凝水
all the moisture condenses out of the air,
你立刻被雾气包围
you’re suddenly in a cloud.
这种失压又剧烈又可怕
Very scary, very violent
我们的实验不是这种
Yeah, we’re not going to do that.
我们要模拟的是缓慢 渐进的失压
What we’re going to do is simulate a slow, steady leak.
我们将从海平面高度开始
We’re going to start at sea level
以每分钟5千英尺的速度上升到2.5万英尺
and ascend at 5,000 feet per minute all the way up to 25,000 feet,
飞行员称之为“飞行高度250”
or as aviators call it, flight level 2-5-0
杰瑞的头顶有个高度计
You can see the altimeter right here above Jerry.
他正指给你看
He’s pointing it out to you.
我们刚过了1万英尺
so we’re just passing through 10,000 feet of altitude.
我刚想提到气体膨胀
I want to start to talk a little about the gas expansion.
你看挂在那的手套
You’ll see the gloves here.
已经能看到失压引起的
Already are starting to show the effects
气体膨胀现象了
of the reduced pressure.
波义耳定律明确告诉我们
So Boyle’s Law obviously is telling us that anytime
只要温度保持恒定
we have in the body as long as the temperature remains constant
随海拔上升 压力就逐渐减少
we go to altitude reduce the pressure
然后体内的气体就会膨胀
then the gases inside that are going to expand.
我的肠道正阐释着波义耳定律
I’m experiencing Boyle’s Law in my gut right now.
我也是一样
I am too.
我们正在“排气”呢
We’re passing gas.
好了先生们 我们接近2.5万英尺了
Alright gentlemen we are coming into flight level 2-5-0.
莎伦会把气压维持在这一高度
What Sharon is going to do is she’s going to level off at that altitude.
她会再排出一些舱内的气体
She’s going to give us a little bit of a vent to get rid of
解决你们刚才说的坡度角问题
some of that angle of bank you guys were talking about
好了 我们到达2.5万英尺了
Now that we’re at 2-5-0
现在我需要你们从右边摘下面罩
What were going to do is I need you to disconnect your mask from the right-hand side,
这样即使摘下了面罩
so that both of you get hypoxia at the same time
你们两个也会同时出现缺氧现象
even with the mask disconnected
你们可以摘下来了
if you could do that for me
从右边摘下面罩后
So if you drop your mask from the right hand side
关闭氧气调节器
turn your regulator off.
你们可以看到那只手套
You can look at the surgeon’s gloves.
里面的气体膨胀得很明显了
You can see that they are really experiencing some gas expansion
从舱内失压到现在
How are you guys feeling
你们感觉如何
inside the chamber as far as the gas goes?
还挺好的
Feeling good.
那么我们开始示范失压缺氧是怎样的
so we will start this hypoxia demonstration
请拿起图形配对玩具盒
Whoever has the toy
你们要用玩具做示范
if you want to use that for me
你们要做的是
so what I’d likely for you to do is
拿起一块玩具
to pick up a a piece.
展示给大家
Hold it up show everybody
然后告诉我刚刚拿的什么形状
and tell me what shape it is.
这是个三角形
It’s a triangle.
好的 然后把它放进盒子
Alright, so you’re now putting inside the box.
做得不错
Good.
去拿下一块
Okay. Next piece.
还是个三角形?
Another triangle?
没错 是三角形
Another triangle.
这个是圆形?
Circle?
不对 这是圆柱体
It’s a cylinder.
这是个圆柱体
It’s a cylinder.
十字形?
Cross?
是十字形
A cross.
方块?
Square.
方块 又一个立方体
Square.It’s another cube.
这个是圆柱体
This is a cylinder.
你的鼻子和嘴周围有点发紫了
We also can see a little purple come around your nose and your lip area.
这是星形
This is a star.
在你拿下一块玩具前
Now before we do it again.
先把脉搏血氧仪夹在你的手指上
Let’s put your pulse oximeter on your finger
刚才还没测过呢
we haven’t done that yet.
看看你的血氧饱和度掉到多少了
Let’s try to check your O2 saturation to see what were down to.
提醒一下 你们断氧2分钟了
You’ve been off oxygen now for two minutes by the way.
收到
Roger that.
唐 你感觉怎么样
Don how you doing over there?
我感觉眼前一片黑白
I’m starting to feel like I’m going to black and white
好像乐一通卡通那样
and a looney tunes kind of thing
我的视线只能集中在中心点
My vision is going into just a central spot.
明白了 唐你随时可以重新吸氧
Alright so Don you can get back on oxygen any time you want to
-你不必逼近缺氧临界-知道了
-you don’t have to stay off.-Yeah.
我想知道你测出来的血氧饱和度是多少
I’d like to know what the O2 saturation is on your pulse oximeter there
现在读数是多少?
What does it read now?
67
67
67附近是关键的血氧范围
67 Okay so that’s a critical area here
这是你要考虑开始吸氧的临界区
where you need to start thinking about getting back on oxygen
因为一旦血氧饱和度降到60以下
because once you get below 60
死亡会在弹指间降临
death can occur just like “that” 。
明白了吗?你得意识到这点
Right? So you’ve go to realize that
你肯定不想死
you don’t want to die.
我们再把玩具拿出来试一下吧
Can we try the the shape box one more time?
对比一下你现在的状态
Just compare a difference between
和刚进入缺氧状态时的差别
when you were just starting your demonstration versus right now.
我可以告诉你 你开始正式体验缺氧的感觉了
We can tell you’re really starting to feel the effects of hypoxia
三角形
Triangle.
我很好奇他现在的肢体协调能力怎样
What I’m interested in is to see what kind of coordination he has now.
身体开始刺痛了
Starting to tingle.
是的 你已经断氧3分45秒了
Yeah you’ve been off oxygen for about 3:45, three minutes 45 seconds.
这个是什么
What is that?
方块
Square.
那这个呢?
And what was that one?
是个方块
That was a square.
方块?你确定这是方块?
A square. Are you sure that’s this one?
好了 你身体开始颤抖了
Alright you’ve starting to have a little shake there.
你知道你处于缺氧状态
You know your lack of oxygen.
达斯汀 你得考虑重新吸氧了
You need to start thinking about getting back on oxygen now Destin.
你应该怎么做?
What would you do
如果你要吸氧 正确的操作是什么?
if you felt like you needed to get on oxygen how would you correct for that?
你能告诉我怎么解除缺氧症状吗?
Can you correct for hypoxia for me?
如果你还不吸氧就要死了
Alright so if you don’t get on oxygen you’re going to die.
你坚持不下去的
You’re not going to be able to survive this.
找到你的氧气调节器 把3个开关全打开
Go to your regulator, get all three switches up.
我不想死啊
I don’t want to die.
好了 找到调节器 把3个开关都打开
Alright go to your regulator, get all three switches on your regulator.
我们还是上去帮他戴上吧
Alright let’s go ahead and put him on for him.
我们把他救回来
Let’s get him back.
我们继续玩形状配对游戏
Alright let’s continue on with the shape box.
这是个方形
So we’ve got a square.
真不错!很好!
Alright! Good deal, good deal.
圆形
Circle.
看到了吗?这就是最好的证明
Look at that. See? That right there proves.
从刚才缺氧到不能自理的状态
How much he’s already gone from hypoxia
回到现在的满分状态
back to feeling 100%.
这非常重要
So this is really important
这就是为什么飞机上
So this is why on aircraft
他们提醒你在帮助小孩前
they tell you to put your oxygen mask on
先给自己戴上面罩
before you help younger children.
没错 就是这样
That’s exactly correct. Yes.
这样你才能保证足够的意识
Because you’re then able to have the mental awareness
救助自己和他人
to be able to save yourself and save others.
如果你打算先给孩子戴上
If you’re waiting what can happen is that
很可能你还没帮孩子戴好
while you’re trying to reach over and put that oxygen mask on that child
自己就先因为缺氧失去意识了
you may end up passing out from the lack of oxygen.
这个太重要了
That’s super important.
下次坐飞机时我会关注一下
I’m probably going to pay attention to the man or woman
起飞前讲解安全须知的人
that’s giving me the preflight briefing again.
我要特别强调一下
OK, I want to make one thing abundantly clear.
这次演示条件是2.5万英尺处
We performed this demonstration at 25,000 feet.
我坚持了3-5分钟之后失去了意识
I had about three to five minutes of consciousness left.
但是 大多数飞机的飞行高度在35,000英尺
However, most airliners travel at 35,000 feet.
看这张图表
Look at this chart:
35,000英尺处位置
There is way less oxygen up there.
这里的氧气更稀薄
At 35,000 feet
理论上 那个高度你只能维持几秒钟意识
you literally have seconds of useful consciousness at that altitude.
你会从正常的理性状态直接失能
You can go from a normally rational person to someone so helpless
失去意识后你连自己都救不了
you can even save yourself if your life depends on it.
我不……
I don’t-
我不想死的
I don’t wanna die
我说这个不是为了吓你
I don’t tell you this to scare you.
我只是想让你明白
I simply want you to understand the physiology
安全须知的规定是基于生理学的
behind that little preflight announcement.
“在帮助别人之前先戴好自己的面罩”
“Put your mask on first before helping others.”
我现在就可以告诉你
I can tell you right now
如果苏珊没有帮你戴回面罩
had Susan not been in there with you and gotten your mask back on…
我说过“你会死的”
We say it, “You would have died”
你是真的会死
you really would have.
谢谢你救了我 苏珊
Thank you for saving my life, Susan.
我欠你个大汉堡
I owe you a hamburger.
收到
Copy.
我不想显得太深沉 像个哲学家
Look, I don’t want to get too deep or philosophical with this,
但是我认为这里有个巧妙的隐喻
but I think there’s a neat metaphor here.
人们很容易看到别人的问题
Sometimes it’s easy for me to see
然后专注于它
the problems in other people and focus on
结果因为忙着帮别人摆脱困境
that and I get so carried away with fixing other people
而忘了自己也身陷其中
that I forget that I have a problem too.
这次的演示真是太棒了
And I think that’s what’s so cool about this demonstration.
有时在帮助别人前
Sometimes you just got to put your mask on first
你要先处理好自己的麻烦
and get yourself sorted before you can help others.
再次感谢你救了我
So thanks again for saving my life, by the way.
不客气 我很荣幸可以帮助你
You’re welcome, it was an honor and a pleasure.
– 救人是应该的- 太好了
– I’d save you all the time.– It was great.
谢谢你
Thank you.
好了 现在我们明白了
There you go, now we learned
帮助别人之前 为何要先给自己戴上面罩
why you need to put your mask on first before you help other people.
你可不想缺氧
You don’t want to get hypoxia.
我是达斯汀
I’m Destin
你比昨天更聪明了
you’re getting smarter every day,
祝你今天过得愉快
have a good one.
[音乐]
[MUSIC]
如果你觉得本节目值得订阅
If you feel like this video earned your subscription,
马上点击我在的这个框吧
feel free to click this box that I’m in right now
或者你也可以在Patreon支持我
or you can click the support on Patreon
我一发布新视频 就会通过邮件提醒你
and you’ll be notified via email every time I release a video.
我想对美国航天局中性浮力实验室里
I want to say thank you to the awesome people
那些了不起的人说声感谢
at NASA’s neutral buoyancy laboratory.
他们知识渊博 教了我很多知识
They kept me super safe, super informed
还守护了我的安全
and they educated me and
每次见到他们都让我受益良多
made me smarter every moment I was with them.
和他们在一起太开心了
That was really awesome.
谢谢你们大家!
Thank you so much, guys!
就到这里吧 我是达斯汀
Anyway, I’m Destin
你比昨天更聪明了
you’re getting smarter every day.
祝你每天都如此
Have a good one.
唐 你的泳镜怎么了?
What’s the deal here, Don?
我把原装的镜片从泳镜上切下来了
Well I cut the regular lens off of the goggles
-然后呢?-然后我找来一副旧的眼镜
– OK – and then I took an old pair of glasses
切下来合适的镜片大小 然后粘上去了
and I cut the plastic to fit my goggles and then I glued them on.
所以你改装了自己的泳镜
You basically MacGyvered your own goggles,
这样你在水下就可以看得清楚了
so that you had correction underwater.
没错
That’s right.
你可真厉害
That’s pretty good.

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视频概述

每次飞机起飞前的安全提示都会告诉你,如果客舱失压,你要先给自己戴好氧气面罩,再帮助身边的儿童。有什么原因吗?只是帮孩子戴上面罩这样短的时间里,会很危险吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

短尾龙

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kUfF2MTnqAw

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