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为什么你应该关心粪便中的塑料 – 译学馆
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为什么你应该关心粪便中的塑料

Why You Should Care About the Plastic in Your Poop

科学秀
SciShow
你也许曾经听说过 塑料对人体有害
♪ You just might have heard that plastics are bad for you—
例如 你不应该微波加热特百惠盒子装的食物
that you shouldn’t microwave foods in tupperware, for example,
因为这么做时 塑料中会释放出不好的东西
because there’s nasty stuff in the plastic that leaches out when you do.
现在带有“微波安全”的塑料不存在这个问题了
Now that’s not really true anymore forplastics labeled “microwave-safe”,
不过看上去好像你一直都在吃塑料哦
but it turns out you probably eat plastic all the time anyway.
至少2018年十月发表的一个初步研究结果是这样的
At least that’s the conclusion of a preliminary study presented in October 2018.
当然这些结论尚未经过同行审查
The findings have yet to undergo peer review,
不过如果结论是对的 那就意味着
But if they’re right, it would mean that
塑料早已经是你日常食物的一部分了
plastics are already a part of your everyday meals.
这会让医生们紧张万分
And that would make doctors very nervous,
因为我们不清楚
because we don’t yet know the
摄入这么多的塑料会对健康产生怎样的影响
health effects of eating that much plastic.
摄入塑料的问题在于
The problem with eating plastics is
它们通常含有一些类似激素的化学物质
that they often contain chemicals that look a lot like hormones.
当人们摄入这些伪激素后会扰乱身体的正常代谢
When people ingest these hormone mimics, their bodies can get confused,
从而导致 例如生殖问题 糖尿病
and that can lead to health issues like reproductive problems, diabetes,
肝损伤以及妨碍胎儿发育等一系列健康问题
liver damage, and disruptions to fetal development.
所以当奥地利的研究人员
So researchers from Austria were alarmed
从世界各地的人粪便样本中都发现了塑料时
when they examined human poop samples from around the world and found
他们当时就震惊了
actual bits of plastic in all of them.
这些便便样本 来自于他们的8位朋友
The fecal samples came from eight of their friends
其中6位来自欧洲 1位西伯利亚 还有1位来自日本
—six in Europe ,one in Siberia, and one in Japan,
我其实挺想听到他们在交谈的最后说
Which I would love to hear the conversations that ended with,
“能把你隔夜的便便给我吗?”
“ Can you please overnight your poop to me? ”
受试者们记录下他们这一周的饮食
For one week, the participants kept records of their food and beverage consumption ,
以及对应包装盒的塑料类型
and plastics they came in contact with. Then
然后他们把各自的便便样本装在玻璃罐里
they each shipped their fecal samples
寄给了研究人员
to the researchers in glass jars.
所有的便便样本中
All of the poops contained
都发现了叫做微塑料的塑料微粒
tiny plastic fibers called microplastics.
任何直径不大于5毫米的塑料都属于塑料微粒
Microplastics are any bits of plastic five millimeters in diameter or smaller.
它们分为初生微塑料
And they’re classified as either primary.
就是说它们一直都是这么小
meaning they were that small to begin with,
还有次生微塑料 就是说它们来自更大块的塑料
or secondary, meaning they came from larger hunks of plastic.
很多的初生微塑料都是塑料颗粒
A lot of the primary microplastics are nurdles,
对于污染物质来说 这个名字太可爱了
which is the cutest name I’ve ever heard for a pollutant.
塑料颗粒是塑料制品的原材料
Nurdles are the raw pellets
它们是小球状的 通常在融化后被制成塑料制品
of plastic that are melted to make pretty much all our plastic materials.
有时候它们会被直接用到
And they’re sometimes used as-is to
磨砂膏或者其他去死皮产品中
make facial scrubs and other exfoliating skin products,
虽然现在这种行为在美国 加拿大
although the practice is now banned in the US, Canada,
新西兰 台湾和一些欧洲国家是被禁止的
New Zealand, Taiwan, and some European countries.
塑料颗粒能够快速地侵入水环境
Nurdles escape into water systems like nobody’s business,
并且它们也是次生微塑料的另一来源
and they can also be the secondary sources of microplastics
因为缺少成品塑料的紫外线防护工艺
because they lack the UV protection of finished plastics,
所以塑料颗粒很容易被降解
so they degrade easily.
体积较大的塑料表面会发生降解
Secondary microplastics are the ones that flake off from cracks in the surface of larger plastic pieces
从而剥落产生次生微塑料
which form as the plastic degrades.
你通常从水污染物质中得知微塑料
Usually,when you hear about microplastics, it’s because they’re water pollutants.
70年代早期 首次发现水体中存在微塑料
Aquatic microplastics were first noticed in the early 1970s,
那之后 几乎所有的水系中都发现了微塑料
and since then, they’ve been found in nearly every water system,
就连南极洲附近的海域也不例外
even the oceans surrounding Antarctica.
微塑料特别容易传播毒素
And they’re especially good at delivering toxins,
因为它们可以吸附水中的污染物
because they can pick up other contaminants from the water.
高比面表积和轻微的疏水特性
Their high surface-to-volume ratio plus their tendency to be slightly hydrophobic,
使微塑料特别容易吸附其他高毒性污染物
or water-repelling, mean they readily absorb other highly toxic pollutants.
这样一来 当微塑料被吃下后
And then, when the particles are eaten,
也同时吃下了微塑料吸附的高浓缩毒素
they deliver a concentrated dose straight into the body of the creature that consumed them.
虽然尚未得知水环境中微塑料的危害方式
It’s not yet clear how the damaging microplastics found in aquatic habitats actually are,
可是实验室研究表明食用这些微塑料
but laboratory studies have suggested consuming them
可能给大部分重要物种带来严重的健康问题
can cause serious health problems for lots of important species.
这么看来 生物学家们因为
So biologists have understandably become concerned
从壳类到海豹等所有海洋生物中发现了
they’ve found microplastics in the bodies and droppings
微塑料而担忧 也就不难理解了
of all sorts of aquatic animals, from shellfish to seals.
如果这还不足为患的话
And,if that’s not bad enough,
大部分微塑料吸附的成分 甚至它本身
a lot of these compounds—and maybe even the tiny bits of plastic themselves—
都容易附在动物身体组织上
tend to stick around and concentrate in an animal’s tissues.
所以 当富集微塑料的动物被大型动物吃掉后
So when a bigger animal eats a bunch of a smaller animal that has a bunch of these bits of plastic inside of it,
大型动物体内会聚集更大量的毒素
the bigger animal will get a larger dose, and
这条食物链继续向上发展 直到它们被人类吃掉
so on and so on up the food chain, until they’re eaten by people.
这就又回到了之前的研究结果
Which brings us back to that study.
每个人心里最大的疑问是
The big question on everyone’s minds
这些塑料碎片从何而来?
is where the plastic bits came from.
既然受试者的便便中发现了微塑料
Since they were found in the participants’poop,
这些人一定不知从哪吃到了它们
they must have somehow consumed them.
这种 “塑料来自海鲜” 的说法
The whole plastic-in-marine-animals thing might suggest
让人误以为吃海鲜才会摄入微塑料
a love of seafood is to blame,
可是8名参与者中只有6名吃过鱼类或者贝类
but only six of the participants reportedeating fish or shellfish.
而且事实上
And in fact,
绝大部分的微塑料认为在陆地产生
the vast majority of microplastics are thought to form on land,
源自于塑料制品在陆地上放置时
because that’s where plastics are exposed
受到的强烈日照和高温
to the most intense sunlight and heat.
微塑料还存在于空气中
They can also be found in the air.
我们毛毯和衣服中的塑料纤维会生成微塑粉尘
Plastic fibers in carpeting and our clothing contribute to microplastic dust,
就像你花园中的各种粉尘一样
which like your garden variety dust can become airborne
它们会通过空气传播附在
and then settle on things,
你的盘子或者食物上面
such as your plates or food.
研究发现 你通过灰尘接触到的微塑料残片
Studies have suggested you’re exposed to a lot more microplastic
比你最爱的河蚌意面里的微塑料要多的多
via dust than your favorite mussel linguine.
如果之前的研究中发现的塑料颗粒是来自于灰尘的话
And if dust was the source of the plasticparticles seen in the study,
事情也许还没那么糟糕
it could be a tiny silver lining,
因为空气中的微塑料或许不会像水中的
as air-based microplastics may not absorb other contaminants
那么容易吸收污染物质
like aquatic ones do.
然而 即便是最理想的情况 也算不得是好消息
But even the best case scenario here isn’tgood news.
人类便便中发现的塑料说明
The presence of plastic in human poop suggests that even
我们自以为塑料会降解然后消失
when we think plastics have broken down and disappeared,
其实它们只是变成了一种微观形态的存在而已
they’re still around—just in microscopic form.
它们不仅仅存在于水源中
Not only are they in our waters,
它们显然也在我们的食物表面和内部
they’re apparently in or on the food we eat, too.
塑料还要在这个世界上存在好久好久
And the plastics in our world aren’t going away any time soon. Which,
这在很多层面上 是好事
in many ways, is a good thing.
塑料帮助人类在医学和科技领域大展拳脚
Plastics have allowed us to do great things in terms of medicine and technology.
但是如果大部分人都在不停地摄入微塑料的话
But if most or all of us are eating microplastics all
我们就需要大量的研究去搞明白
the time, a lot more research is needed to understand
它们来自何处 含有何种化学物质
where they come from, what chemicals they contain,
更重要的是它们如何影响人类健康
and ultimately,how they affect our health.
好了 感谢收看本期《科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
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And thanks especially to our patrons on Patreon.
是你们使这里的一切成为可能
Around here, patrons are what make everything possible,
没有你们的支持
as without their continued support,we wouldn’t be able to
我们是做不出像本期这样的科教视频的
make educational science videos like this one.
如果屏幕前的您想要赞助我们
So if you want to join our patreon community simply
或者想知道用何种方式帮助我们的团队
or just learn more about how you can help support our team,
请移步至Patreon.com/SciShow
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视频概述

科研人员在人类粪便中发现了塑料,那么这些塑料是如何进入人体内的呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

松叶萧

审核员

审核员_BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qi7Ak_wsqaQ

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