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为什么很少在飞行中看到其他飞机

Why You Rarely See Other Airplanes While Flying

Look! Up at the sky. It’s a bird. It’s a plane!
看 天上有只鸟 是一架飞机!
Well almost.
差不多是吧
Right now, there are about 10,000 planes
此时此刻 空中有1万架飞机
carrying almost 1½ million people from one point to another.
载着近150万名乘客从一处飞到另一处
But once you’re on the plane and look out the window,
可一旦你在飞机上向窗外望去,
it seems as if your aircraft
就好像你坐的这架飞机
is the only one dashing across the sky.
是唯一一架在空中翱翔的飞机
The sky may seem deserted, but it’s just an illusion.
天空看似荒凉 但这只是错觉
Planes can’t just fly wherever they want
飞机不能随心所欲地飞
– they need to follow special routes.
它们必须按照特定的航线飞行
These routes are more or less the same for all aircraft,
所有飞机基本都要按照这些航线飞行
and during your flight,
在你飞行的过程中
several other planes are likely soaring nearby.
其他几架飞机可能也在附近翱翔
Sooo, where is everybody?
那么 其他人在哪儿呢?
Oh, they’re there, alright…
噢 他们在那儿 好吧
just not, right there!
只是没有停留在那里!
For one thing, your field of vision is limited by the small window
一方面 你的视野受到飞机小窗户的限制
that only allows you to look out one side of the plane.
导致你只能看到飞机的一边
Even if another airliner was flying along the same path,
即使有另一架飞机在同一航线上飞行
you wouldn’t notice it from your seat.
你在座位上也是看不到的
Pilots, on the other hand, have a massive windshield
而飞行员有巨大的风挡
and can see other planes flying in front of them from the cockpit.
所以他们能从驾驶舱里看到前方的飞机
But if another jet is traveling behind, below, or above,
但如果另一架飞机在后方 下方或上方飞行
even the pilots won’t be able to spot it with their own eyes!
即使是飞行员也无法亲眼看到!
The number of planes in the air is impressive,
天空中飞机的数量相当多
but the sky is big. That’s why aircraft don’t need to fly side by side
但是天空广袤无边 所以飞机不需要并排飞行
– or even close enough for you to see them from your window.
或者飞得很近 近到你能从窗户看见它们
White against the clouds, airplanes are also difficult to spot.
在白云的衬托下 你也很难发现其他飞机
They look like tiny dots,
它们看起来就像一个个小点儿
and your eyes must be expertly trained
你的眼睛必须经过专业训练
to notice a dot that small.
才能注意到这么小的点
Your neighbor might have eyes trained so well,
你邻座的乘客也许就有一双训练有素的眼睛
but we’ll meet those special passengers a bit later!
不过我们稍后再来看那些特殊的乘客
For now, most travelers don’t want to waste their time
现在 大多数乘客都不愿浪费时间
staring at a seemingly empty sky.
盯着看似空旷的天空
Or maybe they do?
或者他们愿意呢?
How do you usually pass the time on a long flight?
在长途飞行中 你如何打发时间呢?
Let me know down in the comments!
在下方评论区里告诉我吧
Bad weather and clouds are another issue here.
糟糕的天气和云层是另一个原因
At night, though, it’s easier to notice other aircraft
然而在晚上 我们更容易注意到其他飞机
thanks to the flashy lights they’re decorated with.
因为飞机上装有闪光灯
So if you’re looking to spot a fellow jet up there, your chances are better
所以如果你想在空中发现另一架飞机
after the sun goes down!
日落之后的几率更高!
What about when two airplanes are approaching
当两架飞机正在靠近并将擦肩而过时
and passing each other?
你能看见吗?
Well, both are moving at a breakneck speed of around 500 mph.
这时两架飞机的时速都在500英里左右
So you’d need to look out the window at a very precise moment
所以你必须在一个非常精确的时刻看向窗外
to notice the other aircraft.
才能发现另一架飞机
Blink, and you’ll miss it!
一眨眼 你就会错过它!
But the main reason
在飞行途中
you don’t see many airliners while flying is also why planes don’t meet and collide
你无法看到很多飞机的主要原因是飞行间隔
with each other in the sky. And it’s aircraft separation.
它也是飞机在空中不会相遇和碰撞的原因
That’s a set of rules that help keep airplanes away from each other.
飞行间隔是一系列让飞机之间保持距离的飞行规定
No plane nearby – no risk of a collision.
附近没有飞机 也就没有相撞的风险
By the way, separation can also refer to other obstacles
另外 它还可以指飞机与其他障碍物的间隔
and even a country’s airspace.
甚至是与一国领空的间隔
Pilots know which airspace blocks they can fly through.
飞行员知道他们可以飞越哪些空域
Before entering a new block,
在进入新的空域之前
they must get permission from a controller.
他们必须取得管制员的许可
When a smaller plane is traveling
当一架较小的飞机
behind another, much larger one,
在另一架大得多的飞机后面飞行时
it’s likely to experience wake turbulence.
它可能会遭遇尾流
This kind of turbulence is mostly created by the bigger aircraft’s wings.
这种尾流通常是较大那架飞机的机翼引起的
Thanks to separation, the risk of collision becomes minimal,
由于飞行间隔 飞机相撞的风险降至最低
and smaller planes aren’t affected by wake turbulence.
同时 较小的飞机也不会受到尾流的影响
There’s a popular misconception that only air traffic controllers are responsible
人们普遍误以为 保持飞机之间的距离
for keeping airplanes away from one another.
仅仅只是管制员的责任
The FAA states that
联邦航空局表示
every pilot is also in charge of avoiding wake turbulence
所有飞行员都有责任避免尾流
and keeping the necessary distance from another jet.
并与另一架飞机保持必要的距离
An airplane’s size means a lot as well.
飞机的大小也很重要
Big commercial airliners are mostly operated with the help of special equipment.
大型商用客机的运行大多借助了特殊设备
It allows them to fly in different weather conditions,
这使它们能在不同的天气条件下飞行
at night, and when visibility is low,
在夜晚和能见度较低时(比如云层中)
like in the clouds.
也能飞行
A lot of small private aircraft don’t have these special instruments,
很多小型私人飞机没有这些特殊设备
and pilots operate their planes mostly when the weather is clear.
所以飞行员大多在天气晴朗的时候驾驶飞机
Besides listening to air traffic controllers,
除了听从空中管制员的指令
those pilots have to rely on their sight.
小型飞机的飞行员还得依靠他们的视力
Meaning, they can only see where their airplane
也就是说 只有在能见度良好的情况下
is going when visibility is good.
他们才能看到飞机的航向
Aircraft separation can be vertical
飞机间隔可以是垂直间隔
(when one plane is flying over the other)
(一架飞机在另一架的上方飞行)
and horizontal (when two are flying side by side).
也可以是水平间隔(两架飞机并排飞行)
If two aircraft are flying below the cruising altitude of 29,000 ft,
如果两架飞机在29000英尺的巡航高度以下飞行
one of them shouldn’t get vertically closer than 1,000 ft to the other.
它们之间的垂直距离不应少于1000英尺
If the distance from the surface is more than that,
如果巡航高度大于29000英尺
the planes have to keep a vertical distance of 2,000 ft.
飞机之间必须保持2000英尺的垂直距离
Pilots can only break this rule if there’s a
只有当两架飞机保持着必要的水平间隔
necessary horizontal separation between them.
即两架飞机在同一高度飞行
The rule is that there must be
它们之间的水平距离必须有6英里左右时
about 6 horizontal miles between two airliners flying at the same altitude.
飞行员才能打破垂直间隔的规则
In regions with poor radar coverage,
在雷达覆盖较差的地区
the distance between planes must be more than 11 miles.
飞机之间的水平距离必须大于11英里
If it’s happening in an airport’s airspace,
如果是在机场的空域飞行
separation can be smaller – 3.5 miles.
飞机之间的水平距离可以缩小到3.5英里
At the airport, for example, during taxiing, landing, or takeoff,
飞机在机场滑行 降落或起飞的时候
airplanes get pretty close to one another
它们之间的距离非常近
– the main rule is to keep a safe distance between jets.
这时的主要规则是保持飞机之间的安全距离
Sounds like a lot to remember, I know.
我知道 听上去要记住很多东西
But don’t worry – we have computers to help us with that!
但别担心 我们还有计算机这个好帮手!
Most modern planes with more than 10 seats
大多数10座以上的现代飞机
are equipped with a TCAS, which
都配备了TCAS
stands for Traffic Collisions Avoidance System.
TCAS是空中防撞系统的简称
Its main task is to warn a pilot if another aircraft
它的主要任务是:同一高度有其他飞机靠近时
is coming close at the same altitude.
向飞行员发出警告
The equipment calculates the time it’ll take the other plane to get so close
该设备计算另一架飞机不断靠近本机
that a collision may happen.
直到可能发生碰撞的所需时间
When this time starts to run out,
当这个时间所余不多时
the system starts making shrill warning sounds.
该系统就会发出尖锐的警告声
The TCAS shows a map with aircraft traveling nearby.
TCAS显示了一张地图 上面是附近飞行中的飞机
(Some systems have a separate monitor for that,
(有的系统有单独的显示器
some display the map on other screens like the weather radars.)
有的则在其他屏幕 如气象雷达上显示该地图)
On the map, pilots can see their own planes
在地图上 飞行员能在屏幕底部
at the bottom of the screen.
看见自己的飞机
Airliners that are far away and harmless
距离较远且没有任何威胁的飞机
look like empty diamonds.
显示为空心钻石
When one of the planes approaches closer than 6 miles horizontally
当与其他飞机的水平距离小于6英里
or 1,200 ft vertically, its diamond gets filled.
或垂直距离小于1200英尺 钻石就会被填满
Any closer than that, and the diamond turns into an amber dot,
再靠近一点 钻石会变成黄点
and an automated voice starts saying urgently, “Traffic, traffic.”
设备将会发出非常急促的自动语音提示:“Traffic” “Traffic”
A pilot must react immediately so that
飞行员必须立刻作出反应
the yellow dot doesn’t become red.
黄点才不会变红
If an airplane has more than 30 seats,
如果一架飞机的座位超过30个
it’s supposed to have an advanced TCAS.
它应该会有一个很先进的TCAS系统
Two systems of this kind installed on different planes
安装在不同飞机上的两个TCAS系统
communicate with each other and coordinate the jets
相互通信 同时协调飞机飞行
so that they can avoid a collision.
才得以避免撞机
In this case,
这种情况下
one pilot will hear “climb, climb”
其中一架飞机的飞行员
coming from their system,
会听到系统提示”climb” “climb”
while the other TCAS will tell its pilot “descend, descend.”
而另一架飞机的飞行员会听到TCAS提示 “descend” “descend”
Before the early 90s,
在90年代初期以前
very few aircraft had any equipment that could help prevent collisions.
很少有飞机安装防撞系统
Pilots had to rely on their own eyes and air traffic controllers.
飞行员只能依靠目视和空中管制员
Early versions of the TCAS were pricey,
TCAS的早期版本很昂贵
and since they had to be installed on every plane,
由于每架飞机都必须安装该系统
imagine the money airlines had to pay
想象一下 为了翻新所有的飞机
to renovate all their jets!
航空公司要花多少钱!
But the obvious need to prevent mid-air collisions settled the matter once and for all:
但空中防撞的迫切需求彻底打消了人们在金钱上的顾虑
every airplane needed a TCAS whatever the cost.
无论花多少钱 每架飞机都要装上TCAS系统
Get this: most passengers might not notice any other airplanes out the window,
要知道:多数乘客不会注意到窗外的其他飞机
but pilots riding as passengers do!
但同行的飞行员可以做到
Their trained eyes can easily spot nearby jets.
他们训练有素的眼睛很容易发现附近的飞机
But that’s not the only thing they pay attention to.
但这并不是他们唯一关注的事情
If their view isn’t clear enough
如果玻璃窗上结了冰
because of the ice that’s accumulated on the windowpane, it’s a red flag.
导致他们视野不够清晰 那就是个危险信号
In cold weather,
气温较低时
snow and ice are removed from an airplane before the flight.
人们会在起飞前除掉飞机上的积雪和冰
Then the aircraft gets coated with a special substance
然后给飞机包裹一层
that prevents ice build-up when the plane’s in the air.
能防止它在空中结冰的特殊物质
This substance works for some time,
这种物质在一段时间内有效
but several hours into your flight,
但飞行几小时后
you may notice that your window
你可能会注意到飞机窗户
is covered with a light layer of frost again.
又被一层薄薄的霜所覆盖
That’s normal since the temperatures
因为飞机外面的气温极低
outside your plane are freezing.
所以这是正常的
But if there’s a thick coat of ice covering the windowpanes,
但如果飞机窗户上有一层厚厚的冰
it could mean that the engines aren’t generating enough heat.
这可能意味着发动机没有产生足够的热量
An airplane covered with ice may have
覆盖着冰的飞机在飞行和降落时
serious flying and landing problems:
可能会出现严重的问题:
the ice disrupts the smooth airflow
冰会扰乱平稳的气流
and reduces the lift that keeps a plane in the air.
降低使飞机保持在空中的升力
So, if you can’t see other jets in the sky
所以 如果你看不见空中其他的飞机
because of the thick ice on your window,
是因为窗户上有厚厚的冰层
it’s something worth mentioning to the crew!
你就要告知机组了!
But they probably already know
不过 他们可能早已知晓
and have started taking the necessary steps
并已经开始采取必要措施
to keep you and everybody else onboard safe!
来保障你和机上其他乘客的安全!
By the way,
顺便说一句
I heard that pilots are trying to get another system
我听说飞行员想在驾驶舱里装上一个
in their flight decks call an E-COF.
叫E-COF的系统
That stands for Empty Coffee Avoidance System.
也就是“防止空咖啡杯系统”
Yep, if their coffee cups get too low,
是的 如果他们杯子里的咖啡太少了
the alert sounds “refill, refill”.
系统就会发出警告:“续杯 续杯”
Hey, if you learned something new today,
嘿 如果你今天学到了新东西
then give the video a like and share it with a friend!
给视频点个赞吧 把它分享给你的朋友
Even that bad joke.
还要分享那个冷笑话
And here are some other videos I think you’ll enjoy.
我们还有其他的视频 相信你会喜欢
Just click to the left or right, and stay on the Bright Side of life!
点击左侧或右侧即可观看 记得让生活阳光一点!

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视频概述

本视频讲述了为什么在飞行过程中很难看到其他的飞机。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员BA

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nq2meLptRLI

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