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为什么有些人不想做“聪明小孩”

Why You Might Not Want to Be 'The Smart Kid'

[前奏]
[ ♪ INTRO ]
若你环顾一圈教室
When you look or looked around your classroom,
通常很容易识别出所谓的“聪明的孩子”
it’s usually pretty easy to identify the so-called “smart kids”.
他们的成绩通常拔尖
They’re typically the ones who get the best grades,
经常第一个举手回答问题
and who often stick their hands up first to answer the question.
处理事情的方式因人而异
Depending on how you approach things,
用这种方法判断你和同学是否聪明
thinking of your classmates or yourself
可能不是好主意
this way might not be the best idea.
但在学校表现好绝对是一件好事
Doing well in school is definitely a good thing,
实际上聪明是有好处的
and actually being smart is good.
普通智力在人们的生活中扮演重要的角色
General intelligence plays a big role in people’s lives,
智力的高低与学术成就 收入和寿命长短有关
and is related to educational, achievement, income, and how long you live.
但你对自己能力的看法会引发一些问题
But how you think about your abilities could lead to some problems.
这些看法包括认为自己无法改变能力
Specifically, if you think you can’t change them, or
或在意自己搞砸时他人的看法
if you worry what other people will think when you mess up.
许多科学家都研究过智力
Lots of scientists have studied intelligence,
但人们看待聪明的观念大多都来自于
but many of the ideas about how people think about
一个叫卡罗尔·德威克的研究者
being smart have come from a researcher named Carol Dweck.
20世纪80年代
Starting around the 1980s,
她提出学前班到初中的孩子往往
she proposed that kids from preschool to junior high are inclined
对能力与结果持有两种不同的观点
toward one of two big ideas about their abilities and goals.
一些人相信实体导向
At one end of the spectrum, they might subscribe to the entity orientation
即相信 能力是天生的 固定的
which is the belief that your abilities are innate and fixed.
换句话说 如果你擅长做某事
In other words, if you’re good at something,
可能是因为你天生擅长
it’s probably because you’re a natural at it,
而不是因为后天的努力
not because you worked hard.
另一些人支持增量或掌握导向
At the other end is the incremental or mastery orientation,
也就是说
which says that, with effort,
后天努力可改变能力并学着把事情做的更好
you can improve your abilities and learn to do things better.
德威克在其研究中证实了这两种观念
These two concepts were supported by Dweck’s research,
但在20世纪90年代 她做了进一步的研究
but in the 1990s, she took them one step further.
1994年她和另一位研究员对
In 1994, she and another researcher conducted a study
78名四五岁的孩子进行了调查
that observed 78 four-and five-year-olds.
研究发现孩子们起初对活动的偏好是一致的
The study found that the kids were already starting to develop consistent preferences for activities.
例如 他们可能更愿意做自己做过的谜题
For example, they might prefer to do a puzzle they had already done
而不是尝试新谜题
over trying a new one.
研究还发现 在猜较难的一组字谜时
It also found that the kids who wanted to
仍想猜简单字谜的孩子
keep doing older puzzles were more likely to give negative self-evaluations
更有可能给出负面的自我评价
when completing a more challenging puzzle.
这些孩子也更可能将自身与他人比较
They were more likely to make comparisons to others, too.
基于此 德威克提出了
Based on this, Dweck proposed that these two orientations
人们具有的实体导向和增量导向不仅存在
entity and incremental didn’t just exist.
它们还会带来动机和目标
They also came with their own motivations and goals.
具体来说 持增量导向观念的人
Specifically, people with a incremental orientation were more interested in
对努力掌握新技能更有兴趣
putting effort toward mastering new skills.
而绩效目标对那些持实体导向观念的人更有吸引力
Meanwhile, those with an entity or orientation were motivated more by
就像他们在意其他人对自己的看法一样
performance goals like what others would think of them.
基于前人的研究
Thanks to work by other researchers,
德威克发现 在成长过程中表扬孩子的方式
Dweck figured that these orientations came from
决定了孩子们属于哪种导向
what kind of praise kids got growing up.
大体上说 如果很多人夸你聪明
Basically, if you got a lot of praise for being smart,
那么你就会偏向实体导向
it would lead you toward an entity orientation,
搞砸事情可能会让你更加紧张
and you might get more nervousabout screwing up.
毕竟 失败可能不再使你成为“聪明的孩子”
After all, failing might not make you the supposed “ smart kid ” anymore.
另一方面
On the other hand, if you were praised more
如果很多人夸你很努力
for the effort you put into things,
德威克表示你会对学习新技能更感兴趣
Dweck said you’d be more interested in putting more effort
那么你会持增量导向观念
toward learning new skills and you’d have an incremental orientation.
久而久之 这两种导向
Over time, these two orientations came to
会形成所谓的成长心态和固定心态
be called a growth and fixed mindset.
“成长”是指
“ Growth ” for the idea
你相信可以通过挑战自己来掌握新技能
that you can master new skills through challenging yourself.
“固定”是指你相信能力是不变的
And “fixed” for the belief that your abilities are stable.
如今 心理学家们自信地认为
Today, psychologists are pretty confident
成长型和固定型心态是看待自己的正确方式
that these mindsets are a reliable way of thinking about yourself.
但不管你在网上或育儿博客上看到什么
But despite what you might see online or in parenting blogs,
这并不意味着 一种心态比另一种好
that doesn’t necessarily mean one mindset is better than the other.
事实上 若仔细思考一下这个研究
The truth is when you look at the research,
在现实生活中都能找到许多与之对应的例证
there’s actually mixed evidence about how these ideas play out in real life.
一些研究表明
Some studies do suggest that
固定心态对学术研究并不好
having a fixed mindset might not be great when it comes to academics.
以2007年的对纽约公立学校
Take a 2007 study of nearly 400 kids
近400名学生的一项研究为例
in New York Public Schools for example.
研究人员发现 起初七年级学生中
In it, researchers found that seventh graders with a fixed mindset
持固定型心态的数学成绩更差
had worse math grades at the start of the study
并在接下来的两年里他们的成绩没有提高
and that they didn’t improve their grades over the next two years.
同时 那些成长型心态的人起初就表现更好一点
Meanwhile, those with a growth mindset started out a little better
然后持续进步
and then kept improving.
然而最近的一些论文
Then again, more recent papers have painted
对心态是否真的重要的问题却叙述得不那么清楚
a less clear picture about if mindset really matters at all.
在最近的一项元分析中
In a more recent meta-analysis,
研究人员研究记录了学生们的心态
researchers looked for studies that measured both students’ mindsets,
与取得的一些学术成果
and reported some academice outcome,
比如标准化考试或GPA
like standardized tests or GPA.
通过研究129组数据
They found that, over 129 studies,
他们发现这二者间有相关性但不大
the two things were related, but pretty weakly.
换句话说 心态确实起了一些作用
In other words, mindset did make some difference,
但对孩子们的成绩来说
but there were probably lots of other things
可能有其他更重要的因素
more important to kids’ grades.
这一结论是有事实依据的
This was supported by the fact that
一些研究试图让人们
some studies trying to
从固定型心态转变为成长型心态
change people from a fixed to growth mindset
但与对照组相比 似乎并没有提高学术成就
didn’t seem to improve academic achievement compared to controls.
诚然 这可能因为在课堂待几天之后
Admittedly, this could be because the students’mindsets didn’t actually change
学生们的心态并没有真正改变
after a few days in the classroom.
但也可能是因为心态不能决定一切
But it could also be because your mindset isn’t everything.
所以 如果你认为自己很聪明
So if you think of yourself as smart,
如果你的一生中人们一直这样称赞你
and if people have praised you for that throughout your life,
没关系 这并不会决定你的未来
That’s okay. It doesn’t determine your future.
但是如果你觉得做一个聪明的孩子意味着
But if you feel like being the smart kid means
你要面临着很大的压力 要取得好成绩
there’s a lot of pressure to get good grades
而且从不犯错
and never make any mistakes,
可能走出舒适区 尝试一些新事物
it’s probably also okay to step outside your comfort zone
也不失为一种好方法
and try some new things.
每个人都会有失败的时候 没关系的
Everybody fails sometimes, and that’s alright.
感谢收看本期“心理科学秀”
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych,
特别感谢Patreon上的赞助者们
and special thanks to our patrons on Patreon!
没有你们 我们无法做出这样的视频 感谢你们所做的一切
We couldn’t make SciShow without you and appreciate everything you do.
如果你想帮助我们制作免费的在线心理学视频
If you’d like to help us keep making free online psychology videos,
请访问patreon.com/scishow
you can go sign up at patreon.com slash scishow
[尾声]
[♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

谁不想做聪明的小孩呢?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

NALIEZM

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审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Abp3ea8jV8

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