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为何你讨厌脸书却依然在使用它 – 译学馆
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为何你讨厌脸书却依然在使用它

Why you keep using Facebook, even if you hate it

就在线体验而言 脸书已变得不可或缺
Facebook has made itself so necessary
而这对许多人来说
to the online experience that for many people it
就是互联网
is the internet.
这也造成了一些主要的问题
And that is causing some major problems
在用户数据和安全方面
when it comes to user data, and security
你能把许多问题
You can trace a lot
追溯到一个叫做网络效应的现象
of these problems to a phenomenon called “ the network effect ”.
我第一次读到这个的时候
I think the first time I ever read about this,
他们正谈论传真机
they were talking about fax machines, right.
当时发明的第一台传真机 是完全没用的
The first fax machine is invented, it’s totally useless.
但随着使用人数的增多
But the more people who have it,
它就变得越来越有用 因为你可以和其他人交流
the more useful it becomes, because you can communicate with other people.
脸书是更有力的网络效应 对吧?
Facebook is network effects on steroids, right?
它可以是一个事件日历 一本联系簿
It ’ s an event calendar, a contact book,
一本相册 是短信 是视频通话
a photo album, it ’ s texting, video calling,
是一天交易数百万美元的社交网络
money transferring SOCIAL NETWORK that makesmillions of dollars a day.
一百万美元并不酷 你知道什么才叫酷吗?
“A million dollars isn’t cool, you know what’s cool?”
二十亿人!
Two billion people!
在这个规模下 网络效应使得脸书不仅仅停留在实用的层面上
And at that size the network effects push Facebook beyond useful,
而是几乎成为
to pretty much being
日常生活中不可缺少的部分
integral to daily life.
关闭脸书之后
It’s not just that you personally would miss stuff
不止你自己会想念那些东西
if you went off Facebook, but it would
况且这也不太礼貌 对吧?
almost be rude, right?
这可能会对你的平辈同事们造成不便
It could be an inconvenience to your peers,
如果你的脸书不在线 那么
for you to not be on Facebook, because then
他们就不能通过这种方式约你了
they couldn’t invite you to things that way.
这就是你给自己添堵了
So you create a problem for yourself,
还给他人造成麻烦
and you create a problem for other people by opting
仅仅因为你退出了脸书登录
out of it.
社交控使脸书将网络效应转化为利润
This FOMO is how Facebook turns the networkeffect into profit.
即使没有人付钱使用核心服务
Even though no one pays to use the core service.
但广告商 卖主和其他人会付款
But advertisers, marketers, and other folks will pay
以获取用户数据
for access to that user data
并且因为用户认为免费的核心服务是有利可图的
And because users feel that the free core service is so beneficial,
他们同意为此付费
they agree to pay,
在某种程度上 提供数据
in a sense, by providing that data.
是真的有利可图
Yeah.
阅读这些服务条款
Read those Terms of Service.
剑桥分析公司所发生的事阐明了
What happened with Cambridge Analytica illustrates
使用这些数据的个人界限
how our personal boundaries for using that
在现实世界中是如何被测试的
data in the real world are being tested.
在2016年的总统竞选中
The consulting firm, hired by the Trump campaign
特朗普团队雇佣的咨询公司
for the 2016 election, exploited access to
擅用了数以万计的脸书用户数据 现在
the data of millions of Facebook users. Now,
脸书给了学术研究人员
Facebook allows academic researchers
更多获取数据的权限 相对于商业公司
more access to user data than commercial companies
和应用开发者而言
and app developers.
所以一名研究人员在此准则下建立了这个个人问答应用
So a researcher built this personality quiz appunder those guidelines.
人们使用它
People used it
这样就要允许从他们的脸书个人资料中收集数据
and in doing so, allowed it to harvest data from their Facebook profiles.
但是没有人真的去阅读服务条款
But no one really read the Terms of Service,
因为它也给了这款应用获取人们资料的权限
because it also gave the app access to some data on the friends
这些人都是被测试者的朋友
of the people who took the quiz.
他们没有直接同意
These are friends,
这款应用的条款
who did not directly consent to the terms of the app.
只有27万人进行了测试
Only 270 thousand people took the quiz,
但根据脸书最新的推测
but by Facebook’s latest estimate,
这款应用能够获取至少8700万用户的数据
the app was able to harvest the data of at least 87 million users.
值得注意的是
Here ’ s the kicker:
这是完全合法的 数据收集并没有违反任何规则
this was all above board… the data collection didn’t violate any rules.
但为“研究目的”而收集
But what wasn’t allowed was handing over that data,
将这些数据移交给剑桥分析公司
collected for “ research purposes ”,
是不被允许的
to Cambridge Analytica.
所以报道出
And when it came out
在2016美国大选期间 剑桥分析公司使用这全部的数据
that Cambridge used all this data to develop techniques to target
发展面向选举人的技术 人们并不高兴
voters during the 2016 election, people werenot happy.
用户想要知道脸书为什么允许这么做
And users wanted to know why Facebook was allowed to do this.
当你的上级说
When you have executives saying,”It’s our
去做这件事是我们的责任
responsibility to do x.”
你能够提这么一个问题
A good question to ask is,
你所谓的责任是哪种意义上的?
in what sense is it your responsibility?
这是你应有的责任吗?
Is it your legal responsibility?
或者只是说你将会感到不妙?
Or are you just saying you’ll feel bad?
脸书的情况是特殊的
The situation with Facebook is unique,
因为它完全没有应有的责任
in that there are no legal responsibilities at all.
这不同于财务机构 医疗记录
Which is different from financial institutions, medical records,
或其他类似的事物
other kinds of things like that.
即使惹恼自己的用户可能对生意不利
Even though angering its users might seem bad for business,
在数据的问题上
Facebook isn‘t doing anything
脸书却不做出人意料的事
unexpected here in regards to your data.
因为你的阿姨和高中学校里的朋友
Because the aunts and high school
以及工作中的熟人 之于脸书而言
friends and work acquaintances on Facebook
并非只是平台的用户
aren’t just the users of the platform.
他们也是平台的产品
They’re also the product.
脸书把获取的数据作为产品出售
And Facebook sells that product — all
给那些想要信息的广告商提供
of that data — to advertisers who want information
潜在消费者的信息
about potential customers.
这就是脸书如何在不收费的情况下获利百万的
Which is how Facebook makes millions daily without charging you to use it.
我们换个角度看脸书
When you look at it this way, Facebook is very,
脸书在自己领域是非常出色的
very good at what it does… even if
即使花大把时间在脸书上的人
the people spending the most time
并不是真的非常喜欢它
on it don ’ t actually like it that much.
这就是为什么我认为
And that’s why I think it’s important
从现有的研究中发现事情
to see that as far as we can tell
很重要
from the research that’s available,
脸书对它的用户并不是那么有益处
Facebook is not really good for its customers,
它使人们感到孤单和沮丧
it makes people feel lonely and depressed.
马特引用了这份哥本哈根大学的研究报告
Matt’s referring to this study, by the Universityof Copenhagen.
它对比了参与者是如何
It compared how participants
自我描述他们退出脸书一周前后不同的情感变化
self reported various emotions before and after quitting facebook for a week.
这是一个很好的提醒
It’s a good reminder that,
当脸书的确使你与朋友们连接
while Facebook does exist to connect you with friends,
并且帮你找到事做
and help you find events,
但这对平台挖掘用户数据的商业目标而言是次要的
that’s secondary to the platform’s business goal of mining your data.
换句话说
Put another way:
脸书只关心你正在使用脸书
Facebook only cares that you’re using Facebook,
而非你是否喜欢使用脸书
not whether you like to use Facebook.
这就是为什么“人人都在脸书上”会是主要的卖点了
Which is why the main selling point is that everyone is on Facebook.
因为有大约20亿的用户 使得这些网络效应形影不离
Because at roughly two billion users, those network effects likely aren’t going anywhere.
无论你是喜欢还是讨厌
And whether you like them or not,
它们都可能会让你寸步难行
you probably aren’t going anywhere either.

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视频概述

为何人们会对脸书爱恨交织呢?脸书究竟对它的用户做了什么?人们又是如何看待这些行为的?本片会带你简要梳理这些问题。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rnNHt84iRE

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