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你的脑子里为什么总有一些声音? – 译学馆
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你的脑子里为什么总有一些声音?

Why You Have That Little, Lying Voice in Your Head

《科学秀》
SciShow
我们脑海中总有一些声音
We all have voices in our heads.
不是幻听那种
Not in a hallucinatory kind of way
我指的是 那些用于日常交流 记录生活的声音
I mean, the one that plans conversations, narrates your life,
并且是说给你自己听的
and tells you about yourself.
但有时候 你脑海中的声音
But sometimes the voice in your head
并没有你希望的那么了解你
doesn’t really know you as well as you might expect.
内心的声音和对自身的认知
That inner voice and your understanding of yourself
都建立在你与家人朋友的交流和你周遭的世界里
gets built from the interactions you have with your friends and family and the world around you
但有时 你得到的反馈并没那么有用
and sometimes the feedback you get isn’t that helpful.
心理学家把与你相关的所有想法的有条理的理解称作你的“自我图式”
Psychologists call the organized understanding of all the ideas related to you your self-schema.
该“自我图示”包括诸如你是否友好 是否外向
It can include things like whether you’re friendly, if you’re extroverted,
甚至包括你属于什么社交群体
or even what social groups you belong to.
逐渐地 人们开始通过与他人沟通来了解自己
And generally, people come to understand who they are through interacting with others.
就像 如果你周围的人总是说
Like, if people around you are always saying
你真善良 或是你怎么那么粗鲁
how kind you are or how rude you are,
你可能会开始相信这些说法
you’ll probably start to believe those things about yourself.
正如心理学上的许多观点一样
As with many ideas in psychology,
你基于他人所说塑造自己
the idea that you build yourself based on things others tell you came from…
猜猜看 没错 弗洛伊德的观点
you guessed it, good,Freud.
他把这种行为称作“心力内投”
He called this introjection.
尽管大多数心理学家不认同弗洛伊德对大脑运转方式的大部分观点
Although most psychologists have abandoned a lot of Freud’s ideas about how the mind works,
但这的确是真的
it’s absolutely true
通过与他人沟通 人们开始认识自己
that people come to understand who they are through interacting with others.
有时候 有些事情与这种理解混在一起
And sometimes things get mixed into that
既不真实 也不健康
understanding that are not true or healthy.
这种思维很早就存在了
This understanding gets started pretty early.
当孩子还很小时 他们对自己的认识
When kids are really young, their ideas about themselves
基本都是正面的 并且他们并没有分辨出
are basically positive, and they don’t seem to identify
自己与他人有什么不同
anything that makes them different from others.
大概5到6岁开始进入学校的时候
Around the age kids start going to school—maybe 5 or 6
他们开始发现自己与众不同的地方
they start picking up ways they’re different from others
有了自己想成为什么样的人的想法
and developing ideas of who they think they should be,
这通常基于他们父母的期望
often based on what they think their parents expect of them.
但研究表明 基于他人想法的自我图式
But studies have found that basing your self-schema
会导致一些问题
on other people’s ideas can lead to some trouble.
就拿饮食失调来说
Take eating disorders, for example.
研究表明 那些有饮食失调 像患厌食症的人
Researchers have suggested that people with eating disorders like anorexia
可能对自己有一种歪曲的认知
can have a distorted view of themselves,
在某些情况下 这可能与他们父母的观点有关
which in some cases might have to do with their parents’views.
例如 一项研究将一些患有厌食症的青少年
Like, one study compared some teenagers with anorexia
和饮食规律的一组进行对照
to a control group without eating disorders,
就自我行为意识方面采访了他们
and interviewed them about their sense of agency.
那些患有饮食失调症的青少年更倾向于谈论
The teenagers who had eating disorders were more likely to
他们是怎么在外界因素 包括父母的影响下
talk about how they got to be the way they are
成为现在这个样子的
by referring to external forces, including their parents.
当然 这不是说
Of course, this doesn’t mean
这些孩子们的饮食失调是父母的责任
the kids’eating disorders were their parents’fault.
饮食失调是复杂的
Eating disorders are complex,
我们没有完全弄明白其成因
and we don’t fully understand what causes them.
并且某种程度上 我们所做的研究有限 每个人的影响因素不同
And to the extent that we do, the factors are different for everybody.
但是这些研究表明
But studies like these show that the feedback
你从他人那得到的反馈
you get from others can make you see yourself
会使你朝着错误的方向发展
in a way that is just not true.
更糟糕的是
To make matters worse,
人们似乎倾向于寻求
people also seem to seek out feedback that
那种可以增强现有自我认知的反馈
reinforces their existing understanding of themselves.
对于那些基本健康的人来说 这很有道理:
For people who are mostly healthy, this makes a lot of sense:
他们喜欢自己 并且想成为他人眼中的自己
they like themselves, and they want to be around others who see them the same way.
但在消极的人身上 这同样起作用
But it can be true for people with a negative view of themselves, too
比如抑郁症患者
like people with depression.
他们可能更喜欢
They might prefer to be around people
和那些对自己评价消极的人在一起 因为这符合他们对自己的固有认知
who evaluate them negatively just because it aligns with their own perception.
研究人员对13名患有抑郁症的大学生进行了小样本测试 以验证此观点
Researchers tested this idea with a small sample of 13 college students with depression,
并且让他们完成一些性格测试
and asked them to complete some personality tests
他们同意将结果分享给其他三名学生
that they agreed to have shared with 3 other students.
实际上 他们的测试结果并没有给其他人看
In reality, their data was not shared with anyone.
相反 实验人员从那些可能看到他们测试结果的人手里
Instead, the experimenters came back with 3 fake evaluations
带回来三份假的测试结果
from others who had supposedly seen their data.
一个是良好的评级
One was a favorable rating from someone
来自那些认为参与者看起来很有趣的人另外一个就没那么高的评价了
who had thought the participant seemed interesting, another was unfavorable,
而第三个是介于两者之间
and the third was in between.
然后 他们问这些实验者
Then, they asked these subjects,
还有未做测评的对照组学生们
along with a control group of students with no diagnosis,
他们有多想见到虚构的评价者
how much they wanted to meet the fictional evaluators.
对于对照组来说 一个更为乐观的评价
For the control group, a more positive evaluation
会使他们对见面更感兴趣
led to more interest in meeting that person.
而对于那些有抑郁症的人 这恰好相反
And for those with depression, it was the opposite.
随着进一步的调查显示 那些有抑郁症的人
And follow up studies found that people with depression
或者对自己有消极观念的人 更倾向于寻求
or unfavorable views of themselves were more likely to seek out
那些从朋友 对象 或是其他渠道得到的消极反馈
negative feedback from friends, dating partners, or other sources,
即使这会使他们不开心
even though it made them unhappy.
这可能是因为 如果你有一个稳定的自我图式
This could be because if you have a stable self-schema,
你会倾向于保持这种想法的稳定
you tend to want to keep it stable.
虽然消极的反馈会让人不舒服
Even though the negative feedback might feel bad,
但是发现自己不了解自己感觉会更糟糕
discovering you don’t understand yourself can feel even worse.
好消息是 治疗师有方法来帮助解决这个问题
The good news is that therapists have tools to help with this.
抑郁症的特征之一是
One of the hallmarks of depression is that people
人们相信自己消极的一面
seem to believe negative things about themselves
尽管事实并非如此
even in the face of evidence to the contrary.
但是 治疗会有所帮助
But, treatment can help with that.
当42个有抑郁症的人 部分采用吃药治疗
When 42 patients with depression were assigned either a drug treatment
部分采用吃药加谈话治疗时
or drugs plus talk therapy,
他们都同样会减轻抑郁的症状
they both had similar reductions in reported symptoms of depression.
但是那些通过谈话治疗的参与者 他们的自动思维有更大的改变
But, the participants who got talk therapy had bigger changes in their automatic thoughts about themselves
那些突然出现在他们脑海中的声音 比如“我是个失败者” 或是“我一定有什么问题”
things that popped into their minds, like,”I’m a loser,” or,”there must be something wrong with me.”
这种治疗方式在改变自我认知上非常重要
Therapy like this can be really important for changing your understanding of yourself,
并且能帮你找到“你其实非常正常”的证据
and for helping you recognize the evidence that you’re actually pretty decent.
他人对你的看法潜移默化地影响着你的自我图式
Other people’s beliefs about you can creep into your self-schema,
并且你的大脑会用它们来欺骗你
and your brain can use them to tell you
你是个什么样的人
lies about what kind of person you are.
这并不意味着你得陷入这些误解之中
That doesn’t mean you have to be stuck with those lies.
谢谢观看《科学秀》的心理学短片
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
我们的大脑是复杂的 这个短片是关于
Our brains are complicated, and this show is all
解开我们思考和行为背后的科学之谜的
about untangling the science behind how we think and behave.
如果你有兴趣了解更多这类科学或在这一过程中更好的了解自己的话
If you’re interested in learning more about that science—and maybe about yourself in the process
你可以在油管订阅《科学秀》的心理学专栏
—you can subscribe at youtube.com/scishowpsych.

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视频概述

你周围的环境包括你的朋友 亲人等其实在潜移默化的影响你。这在心理学上被称为“心力内投” ,但这些影响并不总是正面的。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R3-jt7aIXbk

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