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你喜欢自己的声音吗

Why you don’t like the sound of your own voice | Rébecca Kleinberger

如果你问进化生物学家
If you ask evolutionary biologists
人之为人是什么时候的事
when did humans become humans,
他们有些人会说
some of them will say that, well,
是在我们开始双脚站立的那一刻
at some pointwe started standing on our feet,
变成两足动物 变成地球主人的时候
became biped and becamethe masters of our environment.
还有一些人会说 因为我们的大脑在增大
Others will say that because our brainstarted growing much bigger,
可以进行更复杂的认知过程
that we were able to havemuch more complex cognitive processes.
也有些人可能会认为 那是因为我们发展了语言
And others might arguethat it’s because we developed language
使我们的物种得以进化
that allowed us to evolve as a species.
有趣的是 这三种现象互相关联
Interestingly, those threephenomena are all connected.
我们不确定它们是怎样或以什么顺序联系
We are not sure how or in which order,
但它们都和你脖子后面
but they are all linked with the change
小骨形状的改变有关
of shape of a little bone in the back of your neck
它改变了我们头部与身体的角度
that changed the anglebetween our head and our body.
那意味着我们不仅能够站直
That means we were able to stand upright
还可以让我们的大脑进化
but also for our brainto evolve in the back
同时也能让我们的喉头
and for our voice box to grow
从灵长类的7厘米生长到
from seven centimeters for primates
人类的11到17厘米
to 11 and up to 17 centimetres for humans.
这被称作喉头的“一脉相承”
And this is calledthe descent of the larynx.
喉头就是你发声的地方
And the larynx is the site of your voice.
当人类婴儿出生时 他们的喉头还没有长出来
When baby humans are born today, their larynx is not descended yet.
这只在发生在他们三个月左右大的时候
That only happensat about three months old. So,
打个比方 在座的每一位
metaphorically, each of us here
都重温了我们整个物种的进化过程
has relived the evolutionof our whole species.
让我们来谈谈宝宝
And talking about babies,
当你在妈妈的子宫里开始生长时
when you were starting to develop in your mother’s womb,
你拥有的 来自外界的第一感觉
the first sensation that you hadcoming from the outside world,
是在你三周大的时候
at only three weeks old,
长得如虾一样大时
when you were about the size of a shrimp,
通过触觉来感受来自母亲声音的振动
were through the tactile sensation
所以 正如我们所知道的那样
coming from the vibrations of your mother’s voice. So, as we can see,
人类的声音在物种层面 在社会层面
the human voice is quite meaningful and important
是非常重要且有意义的
at the level of the species, at the level of the society —
这就是我们交流和创造纽带的方式
this is how we communicate and create bonds,
在个人以及人与人之间的层面——
and at the personaland interpersonal levels —
用我们的声音 我们分享的不止是语言和数据
with our voice, we share much morethan words and data,
我们分享的其实是我们自己
we share basically who we are.
而且我们的声音与其他人听到的不同
And our voice is indistinguishablefrom how other people see us.
它是我们在社会上戴的面具
It is a mask that we wear in society.
但我们和自己声音的关系不明显
But our relationship with our own voiceis far from obvious.
我们很少为自己使用我们的声音
We rarely use our voice for ourselves;
我们把它作为送给他人的礼物
we use it as a gift to give to others.
这就是我们彼此接触的方式
It is how we touch each other.
这是一种辩证修辞
It’s a dialectical grooming.
但我们如何看待自己的声音呢
But what do we think about our own voice?
如果你不喜欢从录音机中听见你的声音
So please raise your hand if you don’t like the sound
请举起你们的手
of your voice when you hear it on a recording machine.
(大笑)的确
(Laughter) Yeah,
谢谢你们 真的是这样
thank you, indeed,
大部分人声称自己不喜欢他们录制的声音
most people report not liking the sound of their voice recording.
那这意味着什么呢
So what does that mean?
我们在接下来的十分钟弄懂它
Let’s try to understand thatin the next 10 minutes.
我是麻省理工媒体实验室的一名研究员
I’m a researcher at the MIT Media Lab,
是Opera of the Future的成员
part of the Opera of the Future group,
我的研究关注的是
and my research focuses on the relationship
人们与自己声音和别人声音之间的关系
people have with their own voice and with the voices of others.
我们研究能从声音中学到什么东西
I study what we can learnfrom listening to voices,
从各种领域 神经学到生物学 认知科学 语言学
from the various fields, from neurology to biology,cognitive sciences, linguistics.
在我们组 我们创造工具和体验
In our group we createtools and experiences
来帮助人们更好地理解他们的声音
to help people gain a betterapplied understanding of their voice
为了减少偏见
in order to reduce the biases,
成为更好的倾听者
to become better listeners,
创造更健康的关系
to create more healthy relationships
或只为更好的理解自身
or just to understand themselves better.
这真的需要声音的整体分析
And this really has to come with a holistic approach on the voice.
因为考虑到声音的应用和影响
Because think about allthe applications and implications
我们对声音的认知更深入了
that the voice may have,as we discover more about it.
声音是一种非常复杂的现象
Your voice is a very complex phenomenon.
它需要你身体一百多块肌肉同步
It requires a synchronization of more than 100 muscles in your body.
通过听声音
And by listening to the voice,
我们能知道身体可能发生的异样
we can understand possible failuresof what happens inside.
例如:聆听非常特殊的振动类型
For example: listening to very specifictypes of turbulences
和非线性特征的声音
and nonlinearity of the voice
可以帮助预测早期帕金森
can help predictvery early stages of Parkinson’s,
用电话就行
just through a phone call.
听呼吸声可以帮助诊断心脏疾病
Listening to the breathness of the voice can help detect heart disease.
而且我们也知道 在个人话语中 语速的改变
And we also know that the changes of tempo inside individual words
是抑郁症的一个明显标志
is a very good marker of depression.
你的声音也与你的荷尔蒙水平紧密相连
Your voice is also very linkedwith your hormone levels.
听到女声的第三方
Third parties listening to female voices
能非常精确地确定
were able to very accuratelyplace the speaker
她们的月经周期
on their menstrual cycle.
而这仅需用听觉信息来判断
Just with acoustic information.
而且现在用技术不断听我们的声音
And now with technologylistening to us all the time,
例如 亚马逊的回声助理Alexa
Alexa from Amazon Echo
甚至能在你之前
might be able to predictif you’re pregnant
预测出你是否怀孕
even before you know it.
所以想象一下
So think about —
(大笑)
(Laughter)
考虑道德标准的应用
Think about the ethicalapplication of that.
你的声音也与你如何创造关系紧密相关
Your voice is also very linkedto how you create relationships.
对每个和你谈话的人 你的声音都会不同
You have a different voicefor every person you talk to.
如果我截取自己一小段声音来分析
If I take a little snippet of your voice and I analyze it,
我可以分辨出你是在和你妈妈
I can know whether you’re talking to your mother,
还是你哥哥 你的朋友或你的老板讲话
to your brother, your friend or your boss.
我们也可以把发音方式作为预测器
We can also use, as a predictor,the vocal posture.
就是说 当你和某人说话时你可以决定自己说话的方式和语调
Meaning,how you decide to place your voice when you talk to someone.
还有你和伴侣讲话时声音的方式
And you vocal posture,when you talk to your spouse,
可以帮助预测的不仅如此 而且在你将离婚时也可以预测
can help predict not only if, but also when you will divorce.
所以从听声音可以学到很多
So there is a lot to learnfrom listening to voices.
而且 我相信这要从理解开始
And I believe this has to startwith understanding
我们不止有一个声音
that we have more than one voice.
所以 我接下来谈论的是
So I’m going to talk about three voices
我们大部分人的三种声音
that most of us posses,
在我称之为面具的模式中
in a model of what I call the mask.
因此 你看着面具时
So when you look at the mask,
你看到的是一个人的投影
what you see is a projection of a character.
我们把它称为外在声音
Let’s call that your outward voice.
这也是考虑声音的最经典方式
This is also the most classic way to think about the voice,
这是一种将自己投射到世界上的方式
it’s a way of projectingyourself in the world.
这个推测机制很好理解
The mechanism for this projectionis well understood.
你的肺收缩隔膜
Your lungs contract your diaphragm
这就产生了自我维持的声带振动
and that creates a self-sustainedvibration of your vocal fold,
因此也产生了声音
that creates a sound.
然后你张开和闭上口腔的方式
And then the way you open and close the cavities in you mouth,
会让声音随着声道有所改变
your vocal tract is going totransform the sound.
所以 每一个人有同样的机制
So everyone has the same mechanism.
但是嗓音都特别独特
But voices are quite unique.
这是因为大小 生理 激素水平上的差异非常微妙
It’s because very subtle differencesin size, physiology, in hormone levels
都将会在你的外在声音上产生细微差异
are going to make very subtledifferences in your outward voice.
你的大脑非常擅长
And your brain is very good
从其他人的外部声音中识别出细微差异
at picking up those subtle differencesfrom other people’s outward voices.
在我们的实验室 我们致力于教这些机器
In our lab, we are workingon teaching machines
理解那些细微差异
to understand those subtle differences.
我们通过深度学习 创造一个实时说话者的识别系统
And we use deep learning to create a real-time speaker identification system
为了提高大家对共用声乐空间的认识—
to help raise awareness on the use of the shared vocal space —
会议期间谁发言谁从不讲话——以增加团队智慧
so who talks and who never talks during meetings — to increase group intelligence.
其中的一个难点是 你的声音不是一成不变的
And one of the difficulties with that is that your voice is also not static.
我们前面已经说过 声音会随着与你交谈的人的变化而改变
We already said that it changes with every person you talk to
而且这个改变发生在你的日常生活中
but it also changes generallythroughout your life.
在生命开始和结束时
At the beginningand at the end of the journey,
男性和女性的声音非常相似
male and female voices are very similar.
我们很难区别出
It’s very hard to distinguish
一个童声是属于男孩还是女孩
the voice of a very young girl from the voice of a very young boy.
但在这两者之间你的声音成为你的流体特性的标志
But in between, your voice becomes a marker of your fluid identity. Generally,
通常 男性的声音在青春期变化很大
for male voicesthere’s a big change at puberty.
而女性的声音
And then for female voices,
则在每次怀孕时改变 在更年期有巨大改变
there is a change at each pregnancy and a big change at menopause.
所有这些都是别人在你说话时听到的声音
So all of that is the voice other people hear when you talk.
那为什么我们对它如此陌生呢
So why is it that we’re sounfamiliar with it?
为什么我们听到的声音不是它呢
Why is it that it’s notthe voice that we hear? So,
让我们思考一下
let’s think about it.
你戴着面具 实际上却看不见面具
When you wear a mask,you actually don’t see the mask.
而当你试图观察面具时
And when you try to observe it,
你看到的只是面具的内部
what you will see is inside of the mask.
而那就是你的内在声音
And that’s your inward voice.
所以 为了理解它不同的原因
So to understand why it’s different,
我们试着理解这种内在声音的意识机制
let’s try to understand the mechanism of perception of this inward voice.
因为你的身体有很多不同的过滤外部声音的方式
Because your body has many waysof filtering it differently from the outward voice.
所以为了感觉这种声音 首先得传到你的耳朵
So to perceive this voice, it first has to travel to your ears.
你的外部声音在空气中传播
And your outward voicetravels through the air
而你的内在声音通过骨头传播
while your inward voicetravels through your bones.
这称为骨骼传导
This is called bone conduction.
正因为如此
Because of this,
你的内在声音听起来会比较低沉
your inward voice is going to sound in a lower register
也比你的外部声音更和谐
and also more musically harmonicalthan your outward voice.
一旦它传播到那 它得通过你的内耳
Once it travels there,it has to access your inner ear.
在这儿会有其他的机制
And there’s this other mechanismtaking place here.
它是一个机械过滤器
It’s a mechanical filter,
它是一个小的隔离物 每次你发声时 它会保护你的内耳
it’s a little partition that comes and protects your inner ear each time you produce a sound.
所以它也减少了你听到的声音
So it also reduces what you hear.
接着是第三个过滤器 它是一个生物过滤器
And then there is a third filter,it’s a biological filter.
你的耳蜗——它是你内耳的一部分 能编程声音——
Your cochlea — it’s a part of your inner ear that processes the sound —
是由很多活细胞组成的
is made out of living cells.
这些活细胞根据它们听到声音的频率
And those living cellsare going to trigger differently
会产生不同的反应
according to how oftenthey hear the sound.
它是一种习惯化效果
It’s a habituation effect.
所以 正因如此
So because of this,
因为你的声音是你在生活中最常听到的
as your voice is the sound you hear the most in your life,
而实际上你听到的却少于其他声音
you actually hear it lessthan other sounds. Finally,
最后 我们有一个第四层的过滤器
we have a fourth filter.
它是一个神经渗透器
It’s a neurological filter.
神经学家最近发现
Neurologists found out recently
当你张开嘴发声时
that when you open your mouthto create a sound,
你自己的听觉皮质会关闭
your own auditory cortex shuts down.
所以 你听到你的声音
So you hear your voice
但是你的大脑实际上从没有听过你的声音
but your brain actually never listens to the sound of your voice. Well,
进化也许解释了它
evolutionarilythat might make sense,
因为我们感觉得到我们的声音会是什么样子
because we know cognitivelywhat we are going to sound like
所以我们可能不需要花能量分析信号
so maybe we don’t needto spend energy analyzing the signal.
这称为伴随放电
And this is called a corollary discharge
你身体做的每一个动作 它都会发生
and it happens for every motionthat your body does.
伴随放电的准确定义是
The exact definitionof a corollary discharge
由大脑发送的运动指令的副本
is a copy of a motor command that is sent by the brain.
这个副本自身不会产生任何动作
This copy doesn’t create any motion itself
而是被发送到大脑的其他区域
but instead is sentto other regions of the brain
通知它们完成后续动作
to inform them of the impending motion.
对于声音 伴随放电也有一个不同的名字
And for the voice, this corollary discharge also has a different name.
它是你的内在声音
It is your inner voice.
那么 我们概括一下
So let’s recapitulate.
我们有面具 外部声音
We have the mask, the outward voice,
面具的内部 你的内在声音
the inside of the mask, your inward voice,
接着你产生了你的内在声音
and then you have your inner voice.
我喜欢把这个当作是
And I like to see this oneas the puppeteer
傀儡抓住了整个系统的附带条件
that holds the stringsof the whole system.
你的内在声音是 当你默读一篇文章时
Your inner voice is the one you hear when you read a text silently,
或排练一场重要对话时 你听到的声音
when you rehearsefor an important conversation.
有时很难转换
Sometimes is hard to turn it off,
在没有内在声音阅读的情况下
it’s really hard to look at the text written in your native language,
你真的很难看懂用你的本国语言写的文本
without having this inner voice read it.
也是这个声音拒绝停止唱 你头脑中愚蠢的歌
It’s also the voice that refuse to stop singing the stupid song you have in your head.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
对于一些人 实际上很难控制内在声音
And for some peopleit’s actually impossible to control it.
那就是精神分裂症患者的案例
And that’s the caseof schizophrenic patients,
他们有幻听
who have auditory hallucinations.
他们完全不能区分来自他们头脑内部或外部的声音
Who can’t distinguish at all between voices coming from inside and outside their head.
所以我们实验室也致力于
So in our lab, we are alsoworking on small devices
帮助他们区分那些差异
to help those peoplemake those distinctions
让他们知道声音是否是内在或外在的
and know if a voiceis internal or external.
你可以把它当做是内在声音
You can also think about the inner voice
当作你梦里说的声音
as the voice that speaks in your dream.
这种内在声音可以采取很多形式
This inner voice can take many forms.
在你们的梦中 你实际上释放了内在声音的潜能
And in your dreams, you actually unleash the potential of this inner voice.
那就是我们实验室在做的另一个工作
That’s another workwe are doing in our lab:
努力在梦里接近内在声音
trying to accessthis inner voice in dreams.
即使你不能总是控制它
So even if you can’t always control it,
也可以一直通过对话 内心独白
the inner voice –you can always engage with it
使用它——内在声音
through dialogue, through inner dialogues.
你甚至可以看见这种内在声音
And you can even see this inner voice
当思想与行动之间失去连接时
as the missing link between thought and actions.
我希望我已经给了你们
So I hope I’ve left youwith a better appreciation,
关于你对声音的全新理解
a new appreciation of all of your voices
和它在内外部起的作用的更好解释——
and the role it playsinside and outside of you —
因为你的声音是决定
as your voice is a very critical determinant
成就人类
of what makes you humans
以及你如何与世界交流的关键因素
and of how you interact with the world.
谢谢你们
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

如果你不喜欢自己的声音,那就一起来弄清楚为什么你不喜欢你的声音吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Stacey

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3vSYbT1Aco

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