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为什么每届世界杯的指定用球都长得这么怪? – 译学馆
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为什么每届世界杯的指定用球都长得这么怪?

Why World Cup Balls Look So Weird Every Tournament

每个人都知道典型的足球长什么样 对吧
Everyone knows what a typical soccer ball looks like, right?
它十分简单 就是黑白相间的球
It’s as simple as black and white.
但是世界杯用球不一定长这样
But that’s not exactly what World Cup balls have always looked like.
这是为什么呢?
So what’s the deal?
世界杯用球为什么长得这么怪
Why World Cup Balls Look So Weird
首先
First things first.
你希望足球尽可能的圆
You want a soccer ball to be as spherical as possible.
以前的足球是巴基球形的 或者艾波卡特中心形的
In the old days we had balls that had the buckyball shape, the Epcot Center shape.
它有20个六边形和12个五边形
You had the 20 hexagons and the 12 pentagons.
这种组合十分接近球形
And that was a very good approximation to a sphere.
但从2006年德国世界杯的“团队之星”足球起
But starting in 2006, in Germany, with the Teamgeist ball,
人们用更有创意的方法制作更像球体的球
there were more creative ways to make that approximation to a sphere.
阿迪达斯用新技术设计了片数更少的足球
New technology enables Adidas to start designing the balls with fewer panels,
结果却造成了一个严重的问题
which actually created a serious problem,
因为片数变少代表球缝变少
because fewer panels means less seams,
更重要的是 球的表面变得更光滑
and, more importantly, a smoother surface.
如果球过于光滑
If the ball gets too smooth,
它在一定速度下产生的空气阻力会变大
the air resistance for certain speeds goes up.
这有点像踢沙滩球
It’s like kicking a beach ball.
2006年的“团队之星”足球正是这么回事
And that’s exactly what happened with the 2006 Teamgeist ball.
球员们抱怨说球不听使唤
Players complained that the ball didn’t go where they expected it to.
于是阿迪达斯在2010年做了补偿
So in 2010, Adidas compensated
他们把足球表面的质感弄得粗糙一些
by adding some texture to roughen up the surface.
问题这样就解决了 对吧
Problem solved, right?
“贾布拉尼”彻底失败了 因为它表面不够粗糙
Jabulani was a spectacular failure because it was not rough enough.
球以一定速度踢出去之后
When the ball would be kicked at certain speeds,
你会注意到球飞到一半就会明显减速
you’d notice it would look like it would slow down dramatically in the middle of its flight.
而且球的片数越来越少
And the panels kept disappearing.
2014年的世界杯用球片数最少
The 2014 ball had the fewest panels yet:
只有六片
six!
不过这次阿迪达斯做了补偿
But this time Adidas compensated.
虽然这颗足球片数比“贾布拉尼”少了两片
Despite having two fewer panels from Jabulani,
但是它的球缝比“贾布拉尼”多了68%
the total seam length around the ball was actually 68% longer than it was for the Jabulani.
所以这次 球至少有了适当的粗糙度
So at least this time the ball had the right amount of roughness,
而且飞得比2010年的足球远
and flew further than the 2010 ball.
至于2018年的足球……
As for 2018…
这颗球比(2014年的)“布拉祖卡”多了30%的球缝
Total seam length on this ball, it’s actually 30% longer than the Brazuca.
所以现在 这颗球的表面可能有点太粗糙
So now you run the risk of the ball being a little too rough.
但是这次阿迪达斯又做了补偿
And again, Adidas compensated for this
他们把球缝设计得浅一些
by also making the seams shallower.
研究表明 “电视之星18”的表现
And studies show the Telstar 18
与“布拉祖卡”相当
performs similarly to the Brazuca.
但是它产生的阻力还是会大一些
But it still has a bit more drag
而且以高速踢出去之后 它的飞行距离可能较短
and might not travel as far on high-speed kicks.
尽管如此 我们还是要问
Regardless, all this begs the question:
多年来 球员们一直在用某种球练习
If the goal is to produce a ball that’s similar
那么既然要生产出类似的球
to what athletes practice with for years,
世界杯用球为什么总是在变呢?
why does the World Cup ball keep changing?
实际上 这跟球员和比赛毫无关系
Turns out it’s not about the players or the game at all.
相信你们都猜得出真正的原因
I’m sure you can guess what it’s all about.
每届世界杯都会有一款新足球发布
There’s a new ball released for every World Cup.
但是我觉得 赚钱才是主要目的
But I think the primary reason is money.
2018年的世界杯用球要价超过100美元
The 2018 World Cup ball costs more than a hundred dollars.
这类足球总是被抢购一空
And these balls fly off the shelves.
这是挺大的投资
It’s a pretty big investment,
因为简单的仿制品只卖20美元
considering you can get a simple replica for 20 bucks,
不过两者并不完全相同
though they’re not exactly the same.
比起我们小时候用过的足球
The technologies involved in these balls
这类足球涉及的技术先进多了
are much, much greater than the balls we used as kids.
球的皮片是经过热合连接的
The panels on these balls are thermally bonded.
这样就能防止水渗进球里头
It helps keep the water out of the inside of the ball,
免得球因为进了水而变得更重
keep the water from making the ball a little water-logged and heavier.
但这值不值这个钱呢?
But is it worth it?
这个就由你们去想想吧
We’ll let you figure that one out.

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为什么每届世界杯的指定用球都长得这么怪?

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