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为什么要给老鼠按摩投资? – 译学馆
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为什么要给老鼠按摩投资?

Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage

This video is sponsered by NordVPN.
本期视频由NordVPN赞助
Hi, this is Kate from Minute Earth.
大家好 欢迎收看《分钟地球》我是Kate
For baby rats, there’s nothing like a massage.
对鼠宝宝来说 没有什么比得上一场按摩了
No…not that kind.
不过不是图片里那种哈
When licked with their mom’s soft tongue
当他们被鼠妈妈柔软的舌头舔舐
or massaged by a researcher’s soft brush
或被科研人员用软刷按摩时
their enzyme levels spike, their growth hormones rise,
小鼠体内的酶急剧增加 生长激素含量上升
they thrive.
这使得它们茁壮成长
To discover this heartwarming bit of information,
为了解释这个暖心的现象
researchers drew from a quarter million dollar grant
国家卫生研究所拨款25万美元
from the National Institutes of Health,
给科研人员进行研究
in other words, public tax dollars.
换句话说 就是用公共税收开展研究
No matter how much you like rodents,
不管你多喜欢啮齿动物
you might question whether this was a good use of public money.
你可能都想问公共税收这么用真的好吗?
But it was actually a great economic investment.
但其实这是一项非常棒的经济投资
Fast forward a few decades…
几十年前
the US was spending billions each year caring for premature babies.
美国每年要花数十亿美元照顾早产儿
Researchers recalled how massage had helped baby rats thrive
然而科研人员想起按摩能让鼠宝宝茁壮成长
and they decided to try similar techniqueson the babies.
他们决定尝试将类似的方法用于照顾早产儿
They grew faster, their immune systems improved,
结果小宝宝们长得更快 免疫系统也增强了
and they were discharged an average of six days earlier.
并且平均能提前六天出院
‘Preterm infant massage’ is
“早产儿按摩”
now common in intensive care units nationwide.
如今在全美各地重症监护室都很常见
An investment of less than $250,000
这项不超过25万美元的投资
now saves the US five billion dollars in healthcare costs each year.
现在可以帮国家在医保支出上每年减少50亿
not to mention lots of tiny lives.
更不用说拯救了那么多小生命了
This outcome wasn’t a given.
这个结果不是白来的
The rat massage study, like all so-called ‘basic research’,
小鼠按摩研究和所有所谓的“基础研究”一样
thought to understand how the world works,
为的是发现世界运转的规律
with no clear applications, or payoffs, in mind.
不以明确的应用或收益为目的
And while there are MANY good reasons to do science
虽然做科研除了为了收益之外
other than the hope of a return on investment
还有很多更好的理由
time and time again, basic research does end up paying off.
但是基础研究还真一次又一次带来了收益
The Human Genome Project cost the US government more than $5 billion,
人类基因组计划耗资美国政府超五十亿美元
but thanks to its applications in all sorts of industries,
但因为应用到了各行各业
it has had an estimated trillion plus dollars of economic impact.
现在它的经济影响力估计已超万亿美元
That’s more than 178 dollars for every initial dollar spent.
也就是超过当时所投资的178倍
Then there’s Fermat and his Little Theorem, a beautiful piece of pure mathematics
还有费马小定理 一个优雅的纯数定理
describing certain conditions of prime numbers.
它描述的是特定条件下的质数
This probably-very-inexpensive work
这个发现可能没有耗费多少资金
enabled the entire field of data encryption,
却打开了数据加密领域的大门
now a 3-billion-dollar-a-year industry.
数据加密现已成为年入30亿的行业
But we cherry-picked these examples;
但以上是我们精心选出来的例子
some basic research must have minimal returns on investment,
肯定还有些基础研究收益很少
or none at all…right?
或一点都没有 对吧?
Well, we can’t be sure,
但其实也不一定
mostly because what happens between ‘eureka!’ and payoff
主要是因为科研发现和其收益的关系
can be…complicated.
可能会比较复杂
Take the scientist who used electromagnets to levitate frogs
比如有个科学家曾用电磁铁让青蛙浮起来
which seemed like a non-profitable dead end.
这看起来像是个不可获利的死胡同
But this kind of creative thinking eventually resulted in him developing graphene,
但这种创新思维最终帮助他合成了石墨烯
A Nobel Prize-winning material with tons of applications
一种获得诺奖并且有很多实际应用的物质
and a 42 million dollar market in 2017.
2017年石墨烯的市场价值为420亿美元
And sometimes, like in the case of Fermat’s Little Theorem,
还有时科研发现创造收益只是时间问题
it’s a matter of time. It took 300 years to see the theorem’s payoff.
就像费马小定理三百年后才创造了收益
Intrepid economists
一些先进的经济学家
have estimated the return on investment for basic research,
对基础研究的收益进行了估计
and calculated that overall, we get back what we invest
结果显示 总的来讲 基础研究除了能回本
plus an additional 20 to 60 percent a year.
额外每年还能产生20%到60%的收益
That is a big range, because the calculations
这收益跨度还蛮大的 因为该计算结果
depend on which social benefits economists factor in,
取决于经济学家把哪种社会收益算进去
like the employment gained by students and researchers
比如学生和科研人员得到的就业机会
or simply the advantage of knowing more stuff
或者仅仅是学到更多东西
and how we assign values to those benefits.
计算结果还取决于对这些收益的赋值
Yet even the most conservative estimates suggest that overall,
但即便最保守的估计也表明 总的来讲
basic research more than pays for itself,
基础研究不仅能收回成本
and can even outperform more traditional investments.
它在收益上的表现甚至能超过传统投资
But the thing about basic research is that
但基础研究的问题是
these dividends rarely go back to the lab that did the work
它带来的红利很少会回到它所在的实验室
or whoever funded it,
或回到投资者手中
so private, profit-seeking firms
所以盈利向的私企
are not likely to invest heavily in the basic-est basic research.
不太可能大规模投资最基础的基础研究
And that means if we want to continue
这也就意味着在享受基础研究
reaping the economic benefits of basic research
给世界带来的美好改变的同时
as well as all the other amazing stuff it makes possible,
我们若还想继续从中获取经济利益
taxpayers will have to have a hand in the process.
只能靠诸位纳税人帮忙了
Doing basic research would be impossible without taxpayers’ support,
没有纳税人的支持 基础研究就做不下去
and making Minute Earth would be impossible without the support of our partners,
没有小伙伴们的支持也不会有《分钟地球》
like NordVPN which sponsored this video.
比如赞助了这期节目的NordVPN
Here at Minute Earth, we’re suckers for good wildlife documentaries,
《分钟地球》致力于拍出好的野生动物纪录片
but we don’t always have geographical access to the best ones.
可我们不一定每次都能去到最好的取景地
And we use public wifi all the time,
另外大家虽然一直在用公共无线网
but we don’t want to get hacked.
但我们不想被黑
And both of these issues can be solved by NordVPN.
而NordVPN能同时解决这两个问题
It encrypts your browsing and then routes it through one of
它加密你的浏览记录然后路由到
thousands of servers in 61 countries around the world
全球61个国家的上千个服务器之一
keeping it anonymous and safe, all without logging any of the data itself.
匿名又安全 绝不会记录数据本身
You can get a VPN for three years
三年的VPN订阅
for just over a hundred dollars total – that’s 75% off.
现在只要一百多美元 也就是二五折
By going to NordVPN.com/minuteearth,
去NordVPN网站
make sure to use code MINUTEEARTH to get an extra month for free.
用这个优惠码可额外获得一个月订阅
That’s Nordvpn.com/minuteearth.
这是NordVPN的网站

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视频概述

老鼠按摩研究作为一项基础研究,居然能带来20%至60%的收益,这到底是怎么回事呢?一起来看看吧!

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDU3i2VWdTQ

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