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为什么城市街道都要铺白色的柏油? – 译学馆
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为什么城市街道都要铺白色的柏油?

Why We Should Coat City Streets White

-[解说员]2017年是有记录以来第三热的一年
– [Narrator] 2017 was thethird hottest year on record.
基于近期趋势 气温不会骤降
And based on recent trends, it’s not getting cooler any time soon.
研究人员疑问 怎样保持凉爽?
Some researchers are asking,how can we stay cool?
尤其是城市
Especially in our cities.
城市通常比农村地区更热
They’re typically hotter than rural areas.
为什么呢?
But why?
这归功于城市热岛效应
You can thank the urbanheat island effect.
暑天 屋顶 建筑
On hot summer days, roofs, buildings
和其他城市表温可以比空气高90℉
and other urban surfaces can heat up to 90 degrees hotter than the air.
造就热岛效应
This creates islands of heat.
其中 暗表面是主要推手之一
One of the biggest contributors to those islands, dark surfaces.
暗表面吸收所有波长的光
Dark surfaces absorball wavelengths of light
并将其转换为热能
and converts them to heat.
所以表面变热
So the surface gets warm.
这就是为何热浪期间妈妈叫你不要穿黑衣
It’s why your mom told you not to wear black during a heatwave.
表温可达150℉
Surface temperatures canreach up to 150 degrees.
因为沥青绝缘
And since asphalt is an insulator,
昼捕热
it traps that heat overthe course of the day.
夜晚空气变冷时
Then at night when the air is cooler,
热量幅散
the heat radiates away.
另一方面
Lighter surfaces, on the other hand,
亮面吸收较少光波并反射其余部分
absorb fewer wavelengths and reflect the rest.
那样 能量不会全部被吸收
That way, all that energy isn’t absorbed.
表温不会过高
And surface temperatureswon’t rise as much. So,
给道路涂上白涂料
would coating our streets white
有助于城市降温吗?
help cool dowm our cities?
杰夫·卢扎登场 他是负责为洛杉矶降温的
Enter Jeff Luzar, he’s theVice President of Sales for GuardTop,
路基公司GuardTop的销售副总裁
a pavementcompany looking to cool off LA.
他们的解决方案?
Their solution?
给道路上白色涂层
Coat the streets white.
我们现在看到的温差
We’re seeing temperature difference right now of about,
大约在9到10度之间
anywhere from about nine to 10 degrees, but again,
但现在外面颇凉
the temperatures are prettycool outside right now.
杰夫表示 尽管变热
When it’s hotter though,
白涂层人行道也至多能降30℉
Jeff says the pavement could be up to 30 degrees cooler with the white coat.
去年与洛杉矶街道和服务局合作
Some of the pilot programsthat we’ve done last year
完成的一些试点工程
with the Bureau of Streetsand Services LA City,
我知道他们和我们一样
I know they are, as well as we are,
检查表面 保证他们坚持住
taking a look at the surfaces, making sure they’re
确保他们仍然在做
holding up, making sure they’re still doing
我们说他们要做的事情
what we said they were gonna do.
他们确实行动了
And they are.
一些邻居说
And some of the neighbors are saying
他们的确感觉有所不同
they do feel a littledifference and this and that.
如果我们能将外界环境降温1~2℉
If we can lower the temperaturesby the ambient temperature
会意义非凡
outside by degree or two, it means a lot.
虽然可能看起来平淡无奇
That may not seem
但环境保护署表示
like a lot but a report by the Environmental Protection Agency
1.5℉的改变
suggests that a one and half degree change
会有大影响
could make a huge difference.
洛杉矶在能源和治霾方面每年可节省超1亿
Los Angeles could save over $100 million per year in energy savings and smog reductions.
但涂层由什么制成?
But what is the coating made of?
大都用煤焦油
Most other pavements use coal tar.
一些研究表明
Some studies have been doneand that where it’s showing
可能有致癌作用
that it could have somecarcinogenic effects.
但GuardTop声称它们的涂层由循环材料构成
But GuardTop says that its coating is made
不含有致癌添加剂
from recycled materials that don’t have carcinogenic additives.
当然洛杉矶不是全球唯一的暖城
Of course LA isn’t the onlywarm city in the world.
其他美国城市也在考虑
Other US cities arealso considering coating
给街道上涂层
their streets like Las Vegas.
但官方担心坚持不了多久
But officials thereworry that it won’t stick
因为油性混合道路是用于对抗干燥气候的
due to an oily road mix it uses to combat dry climate.
在纽约
And in New York City,volunteers have painted
志愿者们涂白700万平方英尺的屋顶
seven million squarefeet of rooftops white,
但这只是潜在的1%
but that’s only 1% ofthe potential roof area.
很显然 还有很多工作需要完成
It’s clear that there’s still a lot of work to be done.
在开始研究这个产品前 我不是一个大气候论者
I was never a big climate climate guy until we started getting
但当你看到1℉可以足以改变气候时
into this product but when you see what differences one degree can make
这真的有很大不同
in climate change, it makesquite a bit of difference.

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