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我们为什么喜欢坏消息

Why We Like Bad News

[♪ INTRO]
[前奏]
If you read the headlines today,
如果你读了今天的头条新闻
you probably come away feeling like
你可能会觉得
the world is a scary, dangerous, hopeless place.
这个世界是个可怕的 危险的 绝望的地方
But in reality, many things are better now than ever.
但实际上 现在许多事情比以往任何时候都好
Worldwide homicide rates have largely been
例如 几个世纪以来世界范围内的
dropping for centuries, for example,
谋杀率一直在大幅下降
and global life expectancy keeps climbing.
而全球的平均寿命进却在不断攀升
So why all the bad news?
那为什么会有这么多坏消息呢?
It’s easy to put the blame on the media
人们很容易将责任归咎于媒体
for running sensational,negative news stories
因为他们发布了耸人听闻的负面新闻
that’ll sell papers;
这会卖出报纸
if it bleeds, it leads, as they say.
正如他们所说 流血才有新闻
But who’s buying those papers?
但谁会买这些报纸呢?
Like we are.
就像我们
and there is a psychology reason for that
这是有心理学原因的
Even if we say we prefer good news,
即使说我们更喜欢好消息
we are wired to pay more attention to bad news.
但我们会更关注坏消息
But here’s a surprise:
但令人惊讶的是:
social media might be the antidote.
社交媒体可能是解药
The media isn’t making it up:
媒体并没有编造事实:
there really is higher
消费者对负面新闻
consumer demand for negative news.
的需求确实在上升
In 2007,
2007年
the Pew Research Center released data on
皮尤研究中心发布了
US consumer news preferences
过去20年美国消费者
over the last two decades.
新闻偏好的数据
Throughout that time,
在这段时间里
the most popular topics stayed pretty reliable:
最受欢迎的话题仍然相当可靠:
war and terrorism, bad weather,
战争和恐怖主义 坏天气
and human-made and natural disasters.
人为和自然伤害
Bad news all around.
到处都是坏消息
A 2012 study found a clue as to why.
2012年的一项研究找到了原因的线索
In that study,
在这项研究中
participants were hooked up to biosensors
参与者被连接到生物传感器上
to watch a series of news stories.
观看一系列新闻报道
The negative stories brought on
与正面故事相比
stronger and more sustained reactions
负面故事在参与者的心率
in the participants’heart rates and
和皮肤电导率水平上
skin conductance levels than positive stories did.
带来了更强更持久的反应
As an explanation, the researchers in that study
作为一种解释 研究人员指出了
pointed to a long-established phenomenon:
一个长期存在的现象
negativity bias.
消极偏见
That’s the tendency for negative things,
在其他条件相同的情况下
all else being equal,
消极因素
to have a bigger effect on us
对我们的影响
than positive things.
比积极因素更大
Specifically,negative things stick out more
具体来说 消极的事情会在你脑海中
in your mind and tend to
更加突出 而且往往会
outweigh any other good things.
超过任何其他好的事情
Your brain also processes
你的大脑对消极的
the negative more thoroughly than the positive.
处理也比积极的更彻底
For example, people tend to describe negative things
例如 人们倾向于用更复杂的语言
with more complex language
来描述消极的事情
than they do positive things.
而不是积极的事情
The weird thing is that there’s also a positively bias.
奇怪的是 还有一种积极的偏见
That’s the tendency for people to form
这是人们形成关于现实的
mostly positive theories about reality.
大多数积极理论的倾向
And that contradiction, in itself, also has a name:
这种矛盾本身也有一个名字:
positive-negative asymmetry.
正负不对称
Basically,we assume things will be mostly good,
基本上 我们认为事情大多数是好的
but we still place more importance on bad things.
但我们仍然更重视坏的事情
For one thing, they’re more rare, and for another,
一方面 他们更罕见 另一方面
ignoring them is a bigger risk
忽视他们比给予他们
than paying them too much attention.
太多关注有更大的风险
The thinking is that this helps us survive.
人们认为这有助于我们生存
Assuming things will turn out okay
假设一切都好起来
motivates people to explore the world,
就会激发人们去探索这个世界
whether that’s venturing out of their cave
无论是走出洞穴
or asking someone out on a date.
还是邀请别人出去约会
But at the same time,
但与此同时
being vigilant about the negative
对负面因素保持警惕
helps people avoid danger
有助于人们在探索的
while they’re doing that exploring.
过程中避免危险
That may be why negative headlines
这也许就是为什么负面新闻
are so good at grabbing our attention.
如此善于吸引我们的注意力
A 1991 study
1991年的一项研究
had participants read negative,
让参与者阅读不同颜色的
positive, and neutral words
消极 积极和中性词汇
printed in different colors and asked them to
并要求他们尽快
name the colors as quickly as possible.
说出这些颜色的名称
It took longest
他们花了最长的时间
for them to name the colors of negative words,
才说出消极词汇的颜色
and according to researchers,
据研究人员称
that’s because they couldn’t help,
这是因为他们忍不住
but pay attention to the word itself.
要注意这个词本身
In a study from 2003,
2003年的一项研究中
researchers flashed negative and positive words
研究人员以过快的速度向参与者闪现
at participants at a pace
消极和积极的词语
too fast for them to consciously register.
以至于他们无法有意识地进行记录
They still got a sense for the words
他们仍然在潜意识层面上
on a subconscious level,
对单词有感觉
but didn’t read them exactly.
但并没有完全读懂他们
Still,those participants got a stronger impression
尽管如此 这些参与者对负面词汇的
of the negative words than the positive words.
印象要强于正面词汇
And a 2014 study
2014年的一项研究发现
found that even people who said
即使是那些自称
they preferred positive news stories
更喜欢正面新闻的人
still gravitated toward negative ones.
也会被负面新闻所吸引
In other words, time and again,
换句话说 又一次
it’s been shown that we’re more aware of,
事实证明我们更能意识到
and drawn to, the negative.
并更容易被消极的一面所吸引
But believe it or not, there may be a glimmer of hope,
但信不信由你 多亏了社交媒体
thanks to social media, of all things.
一切都有了一线希望
In 2010, the New York Times
2010年 《纽约时报》
released an analysis of over 7,000 articles,
对7000多篇文章进行了分析
showing the more positive an article was,
结果显示 一篇文章越正面
the more likely it was to be shared, and to go viral.
就越有可能被分享 并迅速走红
And another study in 2017
2017年的另一项研究显示
showed that people using YouTube and Twitter
使用YouTube和Twitter的人
prefer sharing positive content over negative content.
更喜欢分享正面内容 而不是负面内容
Why is this? It may come down
这是为什么呢?这可能归结为
to the difference between how
人们如何使用
people use social media
社交媒体和人们
and how they use traditional media.
如何使用传统媒体之间的差异
We consume the news as outside observers,
我们以外部观察者的身份消费新闻
but we use social media as active participants.
但我们以积极参与者的身份使用社交媒体
People post, tweet, and email links
人们发布 推特和电子邮件链接
to signal things about themselves
来表明他们自己的事情
and communicate with the rest of the world.
并与世界上的其他人交流
And just like in real life,
就像在现实生活中
if you’re a Debbie Downer
如果你是一个黛比·唐纳
who fills people’s feeds with too much sad,
用太多悲伤 恐怖或令人发狂
scary, or maddening content,
的内容填充别人的内心
you risk turning people off.
你可能会让别人不喜欢你
And that could sway our feeds to feel more positive.
这可能会影响我们的反馈 让我们感觉更加积极
However,researchers note that
然后 研究人员注意到
studying emotional valence,
研究情绪价态
whether something is perceived as
无论是积极的
positive or negative,
还是消极的
is different from studying what
都与研究人员
researchers call arousal,
所谓的唤醒不同
which tracks whether or not something
后者跟踪某种东西是否
activates the nervous system and helps us feel.
激活神经系统并帮助我们感觉
It turns out that high arousal makes
事实证明
more of an impact on the decision to share something
与正面或负面的影响相比 高唤醒
than whether it’s positive or negative,
对分享决定的影响更大
especially if what’s being shared taps
尤其是当分享的内容
into feelings of awe, anger, or anxiety.
涉及到敬畏 愤怒和焦虑的感觉时
And that might explain why some people
这或许可以解释为什么
fee like the tone
有些人喜欢
and the content of what’s being shared online
网上分享的语气和内容
has changed a lot in recent years.
近年来发生了很大的变化
It’s not ALL adorable cat pictures, unfortunately.
不幸的是 并不都是可爱的猫咪照片
But don’t count out the bad news.
但不要把坏消息排除在外
Researchers hypothesize that negativity bias
研究人员假设 消极偏见的存在
is there to keep us vigilant
是为了让我们对可能伤害
about what can hurt us,
我们的事情 保持警惕
and the media is there
而媒体的存在
to keep us abreast of threats,
是为了让我们及时了解
problems,and wrongdoing in the world.
世界上的威胁 问题和不法行为
If we shield ourselves from negative news,
如果我们把自己从负面新闻中屏蔽掉
we can’t do anything to protect ourselves,
我们就不能做任何事情来保护自己
or to make it right.
或者纠正错误
So yes, enjoy that
所以 享受你阿姨
feel-good story your aunt shared on Facebook,
在Facebook上分享的那个让你感觉良好的故事吧
but don’t discount the gloomy headlines either.
但也不要忽视那些令人沮丧的头条新闻
Those headlines help us
这些头条新闻帮助我们
make the world a better place.
把世界变得更美好
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych,
感谢观看本期《心理科学秀》
and a huge thanks to our patrons,
非常感谢我们
who we love and appreciate
很爱很感激的赞助人
every single day here
感谢他们在科学秀
at SciShow headquarters.
总部的每一天
If you’re interested in helping us
如果你有兴趣帮助我们
make awesome videos,
制作很棒的视频
head on over to patreon.com/scishow to get started.
从登录patreon.com/scishow开始吧
[♪ OUTRO]
[结尾]

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视频概述

本视频介绍了更喜欢坏消息不是因为媒体喜欢博人眼球,而是因为这样会使我们提前预防灾害,能改善这一情况的恰恰是媒体。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

咬人的小脑斧

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgkFmBHo8Og

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