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为什么我们爱上了辛辣食物 – 译学馆
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为什么我们爱上了辛辣食物

Why we learn to love spicy food

“这是哈瓦那辣椒” 为什么有人喜欢辛辣食物而有人却憎恶它呢?
“Habanero.” Why is it that some people like spicy food and some people hate it?
[咳嗽]“哦 天呐” 辣感是怎样形成的?
[Coughing] “Oh, man.” How does that work?
“真不该吃的”
“I regret it.”
辛辣的感觉通常来源于两种化学成分:烯丙基芥子油
Most spiciness is caused by one of two chemicals: Allylisothiocyanite,
山葵和芥末中就含有这种化学成分
which is what you find in wasasabi or mustard,
以及辣椒类中的辣椒素 植物释放出这两种化学成分来抵御蚂蚁或真菌这样的天敌
and capsaicin, which is what you find in peppers. Plants usually use these to fend off predators like
没有这两种化学成分的保护 植物的种子在散播之前就会被天敌们毁掉
ants or fungi who would otherwise destroy their seeds before they had the chance to spread.
“辣得我的舌头像被蛇咬了一样”
“It’s like a snake bit my tongue.”
在食用辣椒时 为什么我们会体会到灼烧感?
So why do you feel that burning sensation when you’re eating spice?
“食用辣椒的时候 我感觉烧到了喉咙后面” 就像温度真的
“When I swallow I feel it on the back of my throat?” Almost like there’s actual temperature
在升高
change going on?
“嗯 如果不说话还感觉好点 你能确切地感受到热量
“Yeah, if I don’t talk it’s actually better. You can definitely feel heat
就在脸部聚集” 事实上 你的身体对辣椒素的反应
build inside your face.” Well, the way your body reacts to capsaicin
和对高温的反应是一样的
is the same way it reacts to high temperatures.
“就像一匹马从喉咙踏过去了” [镜头外:吃了之后感觉怎样?]
“A chunk just went down my throat.” OFF-SCREEN: “So, what is the feeling you have right now?”
“后悔死了”
“Regret.”
“我需要调整一下心跳”
“Starting to regulate my heartbeat.”
事实上 这种灼烧感只是口腔的误判
Your palate is essentially being tricked into thinking that it’s actually burning.
喉咙 口腔以及舌头上的感觉接收器察觉到了辣椒素
Receptors in the throat and the mouth and the tongue detect the presence of the capsaicin
然后把疼痛的信号传递到身体的其他部分
and they send pain signals to the other parts of the body.
“呼吸都难受”“辣得想哭”
“Breathing in and out hurts.” “I’m starting to cry.”
消化辣椒素时 身体释放出安多芬 这是天然的镇痛剂
When you consume capsaicin, your body releases endorphins which are natural stress-fighters.
人类将辣椒素所引发的痛感与其后安多芬分泌所带来的快感相联系
People learn to like spice by associating the pain of capsaicin with the positive
从而喜欢上辣椒 “我觉得 自己就像跑完马拉松一样畅快”
rush of endorphins. “I feel like, I’m like gassed from a marathon.”
我们用斯高维指数来衡量辣椒的辣度
We rate spice with the Scoville scale
它是由美国药剂师威尔伯·史高维尔于1912年制定的
which was invented by an American pharmacist named Wilbur Scoville back in 1912.
甜椒为零斯高维 辣度最低墨西哥椒的辣度为
Bell peppers are at the bottom with zero. Jalapeno peppers range anywhere from
2500至10000斯高维不等
2500 to 10,000
这在量表上仍处于低位 而高达200万斯高维的
which is actually pretty low on the scale. Jump to two million and you’ve got
即是美国标准胡椒粉喷雾剂的辣度
standard US-grade pepper spray.
而纯辣椒素则上至一千五百万斯高维 真***辣
And pure capsaicin clocks in at 15 million. That’s $*%#ing hot.
人类食用辣椒的历史已有约六千年
We’ve been eating spicy food for about six thousand years
想想传统的辣味风格食物 像墨西哥
if you think about the genres of food that are usually spicy like Mexican,
印度和泰国的食物 这些地区嗜辣风格形成也有各自的原因
Indian, and Thai, they’re all very hot regions and there are a couple reasons for that
以辣入食能帮助人们远离致病菌
Cooking with spice traditionally helped get rid of bacteria that could make people sick.
尤其是在高热高湿地区 “辣得流汗了”
Especially in places with high humidity and heat. “I’m sweating right now.”
“噢 我* 越来越难受了” 下一次辣到流汗
“Oh, s*&#, it’s getting worse actually.” And the next time you’re sweating from a particularly
就不要喝水了 没有用的
spicy bite don’t go for water. It’s almost totally useless.
你需要的是牛奶 酸奶 米饭 以及含酒精饮品
What you need is milk, yogurt, rice, liquor
甚至花生酱也可以 因为油 脂肪和酒精都可以分解辣椒素
or even peanut butter. Oils, fats, and alcohol help dissolve the capsaicin.
而水则不能 “感觉好多了” 你的感觉接收器不会因食用辣味食物
Water just doesn’t. “It helps.” Your receptors don’t dull or get any less sensitive.
而变得迟钝或者不再敏感
the more spicy we eat.
“三十分钟后就没事了 网上说这方法有用”
“In 30 minutes, we’re all going to be laughing about this. I read on the Internet that this helps.”
你的身体需要学习将辣引发的疼痛
Your body just has to learn to associate the pain
与它带来的畅快相联系 “的确辣得难受 但真的好吃”
with pleasure. “It hurts but it tastes really good.”
“是的 那点难受又算得了什么 打嗝都是香辣味的”
“Yeah, it was worth the pain. All the burps just taste like delicious spicy food.”

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视频概述

讲述了我们为什么喜欢吃辛辣食物,和辛辣食物的变化,以及辛辣的影响。

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翻译译者

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译学馆审核团K

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsgpZdGVNys

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