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为什么我们总是口是心非? – 译学馆
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为什么我们总是口是心非?

Why We Hide Our Good Deeds

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《心理科学秀》
SciShow PSYCH
我们平日在社交活动中
In our daily social lives,
时常会做不合常理的事
we’re constantly doing things that
“口是心非”
— on the surface — don’t make much sense.
比如我们明明很迷恋一个人
We’ll pretend we’re not interested in someone
也会装作对他不感兴趣
when we actually have a huge crush on them.
或是 明明告诉朋友升职的好消息
Or we’ll tell our friends about a job promotion,
却偏偏说得好像不值一提
but make it sound like no big deal.
还有 人们总是匿名捐助慈善机构
And all the time, people donate to charities anonymously.
在进化生物学家看来
To evolutionary biologists,
这些行为简直莫名奇妙
these behaviors are puzzling
因为通常你做了慈善
because usually, if you do something good
就会获得好名声
you get rewarded for it
这是一种奖赏机制
with a boost to your reputation.
或许你的初衷不是为了声誉
That may not be why you did it,
但你还是会得到好名声作为回报
but you still get a nice thing in return.
这很重要
And that’s important,
因为这会增进所谓的“亲社会行为”
because it’s how so-called prosocial behaviors get reinforced.
但如果做过好事却不说
But if you hide the fact that you did something good,
那么 奖赏就没有了
then, well, all bets are off.
在寻觅伴侣时也是一样
Same thing with trying to find a partner.
隐藏你对别人的喜欢
It usually makes zero sense
或隐藏自己的优势
to hide that you like someone
降低对别人的吸引力
or to look less attractive
这简直太不合常理了
by down playing your strengths.
不过 人类是隐藏大师
And yet, humans are expert concealers.
我们喜欢欲擒故纵
We love playing hard to get,
我们喜欢刻意低调
and we strive for modesty.
虽然这些行为很常见
As natural as these behaviors are,
但直到最近 科学家才详细了解它们
scientists have only recently started to understand them in detail
在某些情况下
and in some cases,
他们会转而用博弈论解释这些行为
they’re turning to game theory to figure things out.
此时你可能在想
Now, you might be thinking, well,
我们当然要保持低调
well, of course we do all this stuff
我们不想被看成目中无人的混蛋!
we don’t want to look like narcissistic jerks!
在很多文化中
In many cultures,
只有谦逊才能被看作是礼貌的
you have to be modest to be considered polite.
大量研究甚至表明
Numerous studies have even shown that
人们对谦逊的人评价更高
modest people are thought of more positively by others.
原因主要有这几点
Well, there are several ideas about why this is.
有人说 谦逊的人看起来
One suggests that being modest is helpful
不会对他人造成威胁
because you come off as non-threatening.
还有人说 表现得谦逊
Others suggest that it’s all about
可以提升周围人的自尊心
boosting the self-esteem of the people around you.
以低调的形象示人
By not presenting yourself in the most glowing light,
可以让其他人有优越感
you can let them feel superior, and
让他们保持愉快的心情
put them in a jolly mood.
这样一来就会增加你的人缘
You, in turn, end up getting the equivalent of up-votes.
总而言之
So, all in all,
在社交情景中 谦逊是很好的策略
modesty is a pretty good tactic in social situations.
不过以上这些
Still, these ideas don’t fully explain
还是无法解释匿名捐款的行为
things like anonymous donations.
还有 我们愿意花很贵的价钱
Or, why we pay big bucks for a brand name handbag
买几乎看不见商标的名牌包
that has only a very subtle tag on it.
这就要用博弈论来解释了
That’s where the game theory comes in.
今年 哈佛大学和奥地利科学技术研究所
This year, researchers at Harvard and the Institute of Science and Technology Austria
用进化博弈论解释了这些难题
used evolutionary game theory to make sense of these conundrums.
经典博弈论的模型和解释是
Classical game theory tries to model and understand
竞争中的人所做的决策都是理性的
how people in competition with others make rational decisions.
拿战术策略来说
Think war strategy,
是否投掷炸弹
like figuring out whether to drop a bomb,
取决于敌人会怎样反击
given what you think your opponent will do in return.
进化博弈论也是一样
Evolutionary game theory is similar,
但是它不像传统博弈论那样
but it doesn’t require someone to be
要求人所做的决定必须理性
making an active decision.
因此 它在生物学很有用
For that reason, it’s useful in biology,
科学家可以用进化博弈论识别出
because scientists can use it to identify
对群体更有利的策略
tactics that work well for populations
比如孔雀进化出如此复杂而艳丽的羽毛的原因
like why peacocks would have evolved such elaborate and showy feathers.
但进化博弈论不只被用于解释生物的进化
But it doesn’t have to necessarily be about biological evolution.
社会科学家也用它解释
Social scientists use it, too,
为什么一些特定行为存在至今
to understand how certain behaviors become entrenched.
比如口是心非的怪癖
Like our odd habit of hiding information.
在这些实验中
In this experiment,
研究人员构建了一个
the team created what they call
“信号掩埋博弈”用于场景识别
a signal-burying game to identify scenarios
这个场景中隐藏被当作常用策略
in which concealment becomes a somewhat common strategy.
实验只用电脑来模拟过程
The game didn’t involve any actual people —
没有用到真正的人
it was all just a computer simulation.
但实验提供了一些很好的思路
But it did provide good insights.
实验中 两个虚拟人为一组进行经济互助
In it, two virtual people are paired up for an economic interaction.
一些角色是出资人 如果他们选择
Some are senders,
可以通过出资给其他人一个信息
meaning they can send a signal to the other party, if they so choose
即他们是强有力的潜在商业合作伙伴
— a sort of memo announcing how strong of a potential business partner they are.
另一些人是受资人
The other people are receivers,
他们对于不同资助对象
who have varying levels of pickiness
的接纳程度有所不同
in terms of whom they’ll partner with.
实验中还包含很多细节
There were a bunch of other details to this,
但受资人最终决定是否和出资人合作
and whether or not a receiver decided to work with a sender
取决于预先设定好的公式
ultimately depended on formulasprogrammed into the game.
但有一个细节是很重要的
But the detail that really matters is
出资人不需要表明他们之前是否出资
that the sender didn’t have to send an obvious signal about their status.
他们可以选择暗中表明
They also had the option to send
或不表明自己是否出资
a hidden or buried one,
受资人有机会发现 出资人存在隐瞒行径
which had some chance of being discovered by the receiver
比如在假装“不小心”在休息室留下简历
kind of like “accidentally” leaving their resume in the break room.
如果简历被发现了
And if it was discovered,
受资人就知道 这家公司有所隐瞒
the receiver knew it was meant to be a secret.
研究小组在多种条件下进行模拟发现
Running the simulation under a variety of conditions,
隐藏信息在某些情况下确实是一个好策略
the team learned that signal-burying does appear to be a good strategy in some cases.
尤其在被隐藏的信息
Specifically, if there was a good chance
最终有机会被人发现的情况下
that the hidden signal would eventually be noticed, or,
或者信息发送者只关心他选择的接受者
if the sender only cared about the picky receivers,
这些时候 信息只在攻防双方交换是有道理的
it made sense to keep things on the D-L.
科学家发现 这是因为从本质上讲
Essentially, that’s because the scientists found that
隐藏信息本身就是一种信息
hiding information is itself a signal to others.
它能帮你看起来更谦逊
It can help you come across as more modest,
还能释放一个信息
or it can send a message that
你是个知名度很高的人
you aren’t interested in what the public thinks
但你不在乎公众的看法
— just high-profile individuals.
拿匿名捐赠举例
Take those anonymous donations, for instance.
如果有人通过小道消息得知
If someone learns through the grapevine
有人做了巨额捐赠
who made that huge charity contribution,
却没有向公众宣传
the fact that it wasn’t meant to be public
这个事实会显得捐赠行为更高尚
makes it seem that much more noble.
当然 不宣传你的捐赠行为
Of course, not announcing your donation does mean
意味着更少的人会知道
that far fewer people will know about it.
不过或许 仅被少数圈子里的人知道更好
But maybe it’s better for just a handful of powerful people
比如慈善团体或你的亲密好友
— like the charity, or your closest friends — to know,
这会让他们更加赞赏你
and to think extra highly of you.
隐藏信息或许不会让你正能量的行为
Signal-burying might not win you the widespread benefits
获得广泛的美誉
that usually come with positive behavior
但这个行为可以在你对特定人群
— but they might snag you some favor
进行形象宣传时更有帮助
among a select few you especially care about.
这看似是我们持续这样做的原因
And that’s likely why we keep doing it.
所有这些行为并不意味着
Now, all of this doesn’t mean that your choice to
你总是有意识的 有计划的选择
downplay your success or conceal a generous donation
淡化你的成功
is always a conscious, plotted-out thing.
或许你是有意的
It could be,
但研究者运用进化博弈论证明
but because the researchers used evolutionary game theory,
这个行为背后真正的原因是
what this really tells us is that
隐藏行为对我们是有利的
hiding stuff has proven to be beneficial,
这就是为什么社会上广泛存在这种行为
which is why it’s spread through society.
所以即使你有所隐藏 也不必觉得不妥
So, don’t feel bad if you naturally do it.
感谢观看本集《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
人们总是有各种诡异和奇妙的举动
People do all kinds of weird and fascinating stuff,
如果你想了解更多内容
and if you’d like to learn more,
你可以去观看关于“自我设限”的视频
you can check out our episode about self-handicapping
也就是 为什么每次重大测验前
— or why you keep sabotaging yourself
你都会贬低自己
before that big test.
或者和以前一样
And as always,
你可以去youtube.com/scishowpsych订阅观看
you can go to youtube.com/scishowpsych and subscribe.
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视频概述

为什么人们总是不肯表达真实的想法?科学家用进化博弈论解释了这种行为。事实证明,口是心非是一种社交策略,它对我们是有利的,你完全不必有负罪感。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0efKbfLWHDs

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