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为什么女性领导那么少?

Why we have too few women leaders | Sheryl Sandberg

首先我要说的是 今天在场的各位都应该感到庆幸
So for any of us in this room today, let’s start out by admitting we’re lucky.
我们现在生活的社会不像我们的母亲那一代
We don’t live in the world our mothers lived in,
或祖母那一代那样
our grandmothers lived in,
给女性的工作选择非常有限
where career choices for women were so limited.
今天在座的女士
And if you’re in this room today,
多数人成长的过程中能拥有基本的人权
most of us grew up in a world where we have basic civil rights,
但令人惊讶的是 即便是如今这个社会也有部分女性连基本人权都得不到保障
and amazingly, we still live in a world where some women don’t have them.
撇开这一点不谈 我们还面临一个问题
But all that aside, we still have a problem,
一个实实在在的问题
and it’s a real problem.
那就是
And the problem is this:
没有哪一个地方 哪一个领域里
Women are not making it to the top of any profession
女性是处在领导地位的
anywhere in the world.
有一组数据可以很明确地说明这个问题
The numbers tell the story quite clearly.
190个国家中仅9位国家首脑是女性
190 heads of state — nine are women.
在世界上所有国会的总人数中
Of all the people in parliament in the world,
女性的占比为13%
13 percent are women.
企业部门中 领导层
In the corporate sector, women at the top,
高管层 董事会中的女性比例
C-level jobs, board seats —
最高只有15%-16%
tops out at 15, 16 percent.
自2002年以来 这些数字从未上涨过
The numbers have not moved since 2002
却有下降的趋势
and are going in the wrong direction.
即使在非营利性组织
And even in the non-profit world,
在这个我们认为通常应当是女性占主导地位的领域里
a world we sometimes think of as being led by more women,
领导层中女性占比:20%
women at the top: 20 percent.
我们还有另一个问题
We also have another problem,
那就是女性群体面临的选择障碍
which is that women face harder choices
是追求事业的成功还是自我价值的实现?
between professional success and personal fulfillment.
美国近期的一份研究表明 已婚高管中
A recent study in the U.S. showed that, of married senior managers,
三分之二的男性有小孩
two-thirds of the married men had children
但育子的女性高管只占三分之一
and only one-third of the married women had children.
几年前我在纽约
A couple of years ago, I was in New York,
进行一场商业谈判
and I was pitching a deal,
地址在纽约一家装修高档的私人股本公司
and I was in one of those fancy New York private equity offices
你们可以想象一下
you can picture.
当时我在参加一个会议 一个历时三小时的会议
And I’m in the meeting — it’s about a three-hour meeting —
两个小时过后会议暂停 大家要上洗手间
and two hours in, there needs to be that bio break,
每个人都站起来了
and everyone stands up,
这时主持会议的合伙人脸色突然很尴尬
and the partner running the meeting starts looking really embarrassed.
然后我意识到 他竟然不知道他公司的女厕所在哪里
And I realized he doesn’t know where the women’s room is in his office.
我环顾周围 看看是不是有搬家用的纸箱
So I start looking around for moving boxes,
因为我以为他们是刚搬进来的 可是并没有什么纸箱
figuring they just moved in, but I don’t see any.
于是我问他“你们是刚搬进来的吗?”
And so I said, “Did you just move into this office?”
他回答“不是 我们在这里办公一年了”
And he said, “No, we’ve been here about a year.”
我又问“所以你是说……”
And I said, “Are you telling me that I am the only woman
“我是一年来第一个来这家公司谈判的女的?”
to have pitched a deal in this office in a year?”
他看着我 说到:
And he looked at me, and he said,
“对啊 不过也可能你是来这里的女士中第一个说要用洗手间的”
“Yeah. Or maybe you’re the only one who had to go to the bathroom.”
(观众大笑)
(Laughter)
所以问题来了 我们怎么解决这个问题呢
So the question is, how are we going to fix this?
怎样增加高管职位的女性数量
How do we change these numbers at the top?
怎样才能改变现状呢
How do we make this different?
首先我要说的是 我今天所讲的重点是
I want to start out by saying, I talk about this —
怎样留住把女性留在职场
about keeping women in the workforce —
我觉得这是解决问题的关键
because I really think that’s the answer.
在高收入群体
In the high-income part of our workforce,
高级别领导层
in the people who end up at the top —
和世界500强总裁职位中 又或者是在其他领域里
Fortune 500 CEO jobs, or the equivalent in other industries —
我相信 都面临着女性流失的问题
the problem, I am convinced, is that women are dropping out.
很多人都在讨论这个话题
Now people talk about this a lot,
例如弹性工作制 职业指导
and they talk about things like flextime and mentoring
对女性职工的培训计划等等
and programs companies should have to train women.
但今天我不会涉及这些话题
I want to talk about none of that today,
尽管这些都很重要
even though that’s all really important.
我今天的重点是 女性自身应当怎么做?
Today I want to focus on what we can do as individuals.
应当告诉自己什么?
What are the messages we need to tell ourselves?
应当告诉我们的女同事和女员工什么?
What are the messages we tell the women that work with and for us?
应当怎么教育我们的女儿?
What are the messages we tell our daughters?
事先声明
Now, at the outset, I want to be very clear
今天这个演讲没有任何的批判成分
that this speech comes with no judgments.
我没有标准答案
I don’t have the right answer.
我自己也不知道答案
I don’t even have it for myself.
周一的时候我离开我在加利福尼亚的家
I left San Francisco, where I live, on Monday,
要坐飞机来这边赶赴这次会谈
and I was getting on the plane for this conference.
我把三岁的女儿送到幼儿园时
And my daughter, who’s three, when I dropped her off at preschool,
她抱着我的大腿 撒娇哭闹“妈妈你不要上飞机”
did that whole hugging-the-leg, crying, “Mommy, don’t get on the plane” thing.
我很难受 有时候我也觉得愧疚
This is hard. I feel guilty sometimes.
我知道每个女人
I know no women,
不管是家庭主妇还是职业女性
whether they’re at home or whether they’re in the workforce,
都有这种愧疚的时候
who don’t feel that sometimes.
所以我并不是要说
So I’m not saying that staying in the workforce
每个女人都应该出去工作
is the right thing for everyone.
我今天想讨论的是 如果女性想呆在职场
My talk today is about what the messages are
她该怎么做
if you do want to stay in the workforce,
我认为答案有三点
and I think there are three.
第一 坐到桌旁来
One, sit at the table.
第二 与丈夫协同合作
Two, make your partner a real partner.
第三 不到最后一刻别放弃
And three, don’t leave before you leave.
第一 坐到桌旁来
Number one: sit at the table.
几个礼拜前在Facebook
Just a couple weeks ago at Facebook,
我们招待了一个政府的高级官员
we hosted a very senior government official,
他来这边接见几位
and he came in to meet with senior execs
硅谷的高级主管
from around Silicon Valley.
每个人都坐在桌子旁
And everyone kind of sat at the table.
这位官员身边跟着两位女性
He had these two women who were traveling with him
在他的部门里职位也很高
pretty senior in his department,
然后我对她们说
and I kind of said to them,
坐到桌子旁边来 坐过来
“Sit at the table. Come on, sit at the table,”
可是她们走到角落里坐了下去
and they sat on the side of the room.
我上大四的时候
When I was in college, my senior year,
我选了一门课叫《欧洲思想史》
I took a course called European Intellectual History.
大家不都是很喜欢上这种课吗
Don’t you love that kind of thing from college?
可惜我现在上不了了
I wish I could do that now.
跟我一起的还有我室友Carrie
And I took it with my roommate, Carrie,
她是非常厉害的文学系学生
who was then a brilliant literary student —
立志要做一个出色的文学家
and went on to be a brilliant literary scholar —
还有我弟弟 他是个聪明的家伙
and my brother — smart guy,
喜欢打水球 在医学院上预科
but a water-polo-playing pre-med,
他是大二的
who was a sophomore.
我们三人一起上的这门课
The three of us take this class together.
Carrie 把所有希腊语和拉丁语的原版书都看了一遍
And then Carrie reads all the books in the original Greek and Latin,
每一堂课都去上
goes to all the lectures.
我把英文版的课本看了一遍
I read all the books in English
上了大部分的课
and go to most of the lectures.
我弟弟没什么空
My brother is kind of busy.
他只读了12本书里的一本 上了几节课
He reads one book of 12 and goes to a couple of lectures,
考试前几天他跑到我们宿舍
marches himself up to our room
让我们给他考前突击
a couple days before the exam to get himself tutored.
后来我们一起去考试
The three of us go to the exam together, and we sit down.
坐在考场3个小时
And we sit there for three hours —
带着我们的蓝色小笔记本 对 我就是活了这么久
and our little blue notebooks. Yes, I’m that old.
出考场的时候我们问对方考得怎么样
We walked out, we look at each other, and we say, “How did you do?”
Carrier说 天哪 我觉得我没有把
And Carrie says, “Boy, I feel like I didn’t really draw out the main point
黑格尔辩证法的重点写出来
on the Hegelian dialectic.”
我说 天哪 我没有把
And I say, “God, I really wish I had really connected
约翰洛克的产权理论和相关的哲学家联系起来
John Locke’s theory of property with the philosophers that follow.”
然后我弟弟说:
And my brother says,
我觉得我能考第一
“I got the top grade in the class.”
(观众大笑)
(Laughter)
“你会考第一?”
“You got the top grade in the class?
“你什么都不会!”
You don’t know anything.”
(观众大笑)
(Laughter)
这几个故事跟之前那组数据都说明了同一个问题
The problem with these stories is that they show what the data shows:
女性们普遍地低估了自己的能力
women systematically underestimate their own abilities.
如果你给男性和女性同时做测试
If you test men and women,
问他们一些有例如GPA这样客观标准的问题
and you ask them questions on totally objective criteria like GPAs,
(你会发现)男性预估的分数会比实际高
men get it wrong slightly high,
而女性预估的分数则较低
and women get it wrong slightly low.
女性在职场不会主动争取自己的利益
Women do not negotiate for themselves in the workforce.
过去两年的调查显示
A study in the last two years
刚出校门进入职场的人中
of people entering the workforce out of college
57%的男生 或者说男性
showed that 57 percent of boys entering, or men, I guess,
会跟公司协商他们的第一份薪水
are negotiating their first salary,
但只有7%的女性会这么做
and only seven percent of women.
更重要的是
And most importantly,
男性把成功归因为自身
men attribute their success to themselves,
而女性则归功于其他外部因素
and women attribute it to other external factors.
如果你问男性为什么他们能把工作做好
If you ask men why they did a good job,
他们会告诉你“因为我很棒”
they’ll say, “I’m awesome.
“这很明显啊 你还用问吗?”
Obviously. Why are you even asking?”
如果你问女性她们工作出色的原因
If you ask women why they did a good job,
她们会说 因为得到别人的帮助啦
what they’ll say is someone helped them,
运气好啦 或者是因为她们够努力啦
they got lucky, they worked really hard.
这很重要吗
Why does this matter?
朋友们 这非常重要!
Boy, it matters a lot.
因为如果你连桌子旁边都不敢坐
Because no one gets to the corner office
你怎么坐得进角落的大办公室?
by sitting on the side, not at the table,
你如果你觉得自己不配拥有成功
and no one gets the promotion
或者是根本意识不到自己的成功
if they don’t think they deserve their success,
你怎么会跟上级争取晋升?
or they don’t even understand their own success.
我希望这个答案够简单
I wish the answer were easy.
我希望我能对自己为之奋斗的
I wish I could go tell all the young women I work for,
这些出色的女性朋友们说
these fabulous women,
相信你自己 为自己争取
“Believe in yourself and negotiate for yourself.
把握住你的成功
Own your own success.”
我希望我能把这句话说给我女儿听
I wish I could tell that to my daughter.
但没那么容易
But it’s not that simple.
因为那组数据表明了一件事
Because what the data shows, above all else, is one thing,
对男性来说 成功能给他带来各方的好感度
which is that success and likeability are positively correlated for men
对女性来说则不然
and negatively correlated for women.
我看到你们都在点头 因为你们清楚这就是事实
And everyone’s nodding, because we all know this to be true.
有一项研究很好地说明了这个事实
There’s a really good study that shows this really well.
这是来自哈佛商学院的一项著名的研究
There’s a famous Harvard Business School study
是关于一个叫Heidi Roizen的女士的
on a woman named Heidi Roizen.
她是硅谷一家公司的经营者
And she’s an operator in a company in Silicon Valley,
并且利用人脉关系
and she uses her contacts
成为了一名非常成功的风投家
to become a very successful venture capitalist.
不久前 2002年的时候
In 2002 — not so long ago —
当时在哥伦比亚大学的一位教授
a professor who was then at Columbia University
把这个案例里的主人公名字改成了Howard Roizen
took that case and made it [Howard] Roizen.
他把原案例和修改过的案例给了两组学生
And he gave the case out, both of them, to two groups of students.
两份案例只有名字不同
He changed exactly one word:
一个是Heidi 一个是Howard
“Heidi” to “Howard.”
但就是因为这两个词的差异 结果迥然不同
But that one word made a really big difference.
他在这些学生中做了个调查
He then surveyed the students,
好的反馈是 不管是男学生还是女学生
and the good news was the students, both men and women,
都觉得Heidi和Howard能力相当
thought Heidi and Howard were equally competent,
这一点很好
and that’s good.
不好的一点是 每个学生喜欢的都是Howard
The bad news was that everyone liked Howard.
他很不错 他们希望能在他手下工作
He’s a great guy. You want to work for him.
他们愿意跟他钓一整天的鱼
You want to spend the day fishing with him.
那么Heidi怎样呢? 不大确定
But Heidi? Not so sure.
她太有企图心了 太精明了
She’s a little out for herself. She’s a little political.
他们不确定想不想与她共事
You’re not sure you’d want to work for her.
这就是这个问题复杂的地方
This is the complication.
我们得告诉我们的女儿和女同事
We have to tell our daughters and our colleagues,
让她们相信自己很棒
we have to tell ourselves to believe we got the A,
让她们去争取利益 让她们有勇气坐到桌旁来
to reach for the promotion, to sit at the table,
我们必须这么告诉她们 因为在这个世界上
and we have to do it in a world
为了那些 女性要付出许多
where, for them, there are sacrifices they will make for that,
而她们的兄弟却不需要
even though for their brothers, there are not.
最可悲的是我们常常忘记这一点
The saddest thing about all of this is that it’s really hard to remember this.
下面我要讲个故事 这个故事让我觉得很难为情
And I’m about to tell a story which is truly embarrassing for me,
但我觉得它很重要
but I think important.
不久前我在Facebook做演讲
I gave this talk at Facebook not so long ago
台下坐着大概100个员工
to about 100 employees,
几个小时后 有一个坐在我桌子旁的
and a couple hours later, there was a young woman who works there
一个年轻女员工想跟我讲话
sitting outside my little desk, and she wanted to talk to me.
我说好啊 然后我们就聊起来了
I said, okay, and she sat down, and we talked.
她告诉我 “我今天学到了一件事”
And she said, “I learned something today.
“那就是 永远都要举着手”
I learned that I need to keep my hand up.”
我问“这是什么意思”
“What do you mean?”
她说 “你刚刚在演讲的时候”
She said, “You’re giving this talk,
”你说你要再回答观众两个问题”
and you said you would take two more questions.
“我就跟很多人一起把手举起来了”
I had my hand up with many other people,
“然后你就回答了大家两个问题”
and you took two more questions.
“然后我就把手放下来了 我发现其他女同事也把手放下来了”
I put my hand down, and I noticed all the women did the same,
“可是你又继续回答问题了”
and then you took more questions,
“因为那些男同事还举着手”
only from the men.”
我听完了心想
And I thought to myself,
天哪 如果是我……谁会注意到这一点呢
“Wow, if it’s me — who cares about this, obviously —
我在做演讲的时候
giving this talk —
根本不会去注意男士们的手是不是还举着
and during this talk, I can’t even notice that the men’s hands are still raised,
女士们的手是不是还举着
and the women’s hands are still raised,
我们这些管理层 有多少时候能注意到
how good are we as managers of our companies and our organizations
男性比女性在更加积极地争取机会?
at seeing that the men are reaching for opportunities more than women?”
我们必须要让女性做到桌子旁边来!
We’ve got to get women to sit at the table.
(欢呼)
(Cheers)
(掌声)
(Applause)
第二点
Message number two:
与丈夫协同合作
Make your partner a real partner.
我认为 女性们目前在工作方面的情况的改善
I’ve become convinced that we’ve made more progress in the workforce
要比她们在家庭内部时好一些
than we have in the home.
下面这组数据很好地说明了这一点
The data shows this very clearly.
如果男女双方都是全职 育有一个小孩
If a woman and a man work full-time and have a child,
妻子所做的家务量会是丈夫的两倍
the woman does twice the amount of housework the man does,
照顾孩子的时间是丈夫的三倍
and the woman does three times the amount of childcare the man does.
所以妻子等于是同时做着两份或三份工作 丈夫只有一份
So she’s got three jobs or two jobs, and he’s got one.
这时如果必须要留一个人在家里 你们猜会是谁呢
Who do you think drops out when someone needs to be home more?
造成这种局面的原因很复杂 今天我没有时间细讲
The causes of this are really complicated, and I don’t have time to go into them.
但是我不觉得男人们“周日要看足球赛”和“男人普遍都很懒”可以算作原因
And I don’t think Sunday football-watching and general laziness is the cause.
真正的原因不会这么简单
I think the cause is more complicated.
我觉得是因为 在这个社会里
I think, as a society,
相较于女性 我们更期望男性
we put more pressure on our boys to succeed
获得成功
than we do on our girls.
我认识一些
I know men that stay home
为了支持妻子的工作而呆在家里的男士
and work in the home to support wives with careers,
对他们来说这太难了
and it’s hard.
我发现妈妈们带着孩子玩的时候 如果其中有一对是爸爸带着孩子
When I go to the Mommy-and-Me stuff and I see the father there,
其他的妈妈都不会跟这个爸爸互动
I notice that the other mommies don’t play with him.
这就是问题所在
And that’s a problem,
我们必须要把留守家中当成一项重要的工作
because we have to make it as important a job,
它是世界上最难的一份工作
because it’s the hardest job in the world to work inside the home,
不论对男性还是女性来说都一样
for people of both genders,
如果说我们想平衡一下现状 让女士们出去工作的话
if we’re going to even things out and let women stay in the workforce.
(掌声)
(Applause)
研究表明 即使收入相等
Studies show that households with equal earning
家庭责任平摊的夫妻
and equal responsibility
离婚率也会低一半
also have half the divorce rate.
如果你们对这个数字没什么感觉的话
And if that wasn’t good enough motivation for everyone out there,
(我要告诉你们)这些夫妻还……
they also have more —
这种场合我该怎么讲呢
how shall I say this on this stage?
他们性生活也更和谐
They know each other more in the biblical sense as well.
(欢呼)
(Cheers)
第三点
Message number three:
不到最后一刻别放弃
Don’t leave before you leave.
我觉得有一点很讽刺
I think there’s a really deep irony
我一直看到的一种情况是:
to the fact that actions women are taking —
女性们为了留在职场
and I see this all the time —
所做的事情
with the objective of staying in the workforce
最终都导致了她们的离开
actually lead to their eventually leaving.
事情是这样发生的:
Here’s what happens:
我们大家都很忙 如果一个女人在忙碌的时候
We’re all busy. Everyone’s busy. A woman’s busy.
突然考虑起生小孩的事情
And she starts thinking about having a child,
从她开始考虑那件事的时候起
and from the moment she starts thinking about having a child,
她就开始打算给孩子腾出点时间
she starts thinking about making room for that child.
“那我该怎么协调手头的工作呢”
“How am I going to fit this into everything else I’m doing?”
就从那个时候起
And literally from that moment,
她的手再也不举了
she doesn’t raise her hand anymore,
不再期待升职 不再参加新项目
she doesn’t look for a promotion, she doesn’t take on the new project,
不再说“我就是要做那件事”
she doesn’t say, “Me. I want to do that.”
她开始后退了
She starts leaning back.
但问题在于
The problem is that —
假设她在思考这件事的时候就开始怀孕
let’s say she got pregnant that day, that day —
9个月的孕期 3个月的产假
nine months of pregnancy, three months of maternity leave,
6个月来调养休息
six months to catch your breath —
两年时间转瞬即逝
Fast-forward two years.
我看到的是 在大多数情况下
More often — and as I’ve seen it —
女性过早地开始考虑这些问题
women start thinking about this way earlier —
订婚的时候 结婚的时候
when they get engaged, or married,
从开始考虑要孩子的那一刻起
when they start thinking about having a child,
她们考虑的时间太长了
which can take a long time.
有位女士为此专门找过我
One woman came to see me about this.
她看起来挺年轻的
She looked a little young.
我问她“你跟你先生考虑要孩子了是吗?”
And I said, “So are you and your husband thinking about having a baby?”
她答“不不 我还没结婚”
And she said, “Oh no, I’m not married.”
她甚至都没有男朋友
She didn’t even have a boyfriend.
(观众大笑)
(Laughter)
我说“你考虑得也太早了吧”
I said, “You’re thinking about this just way too early.”
但问题是 从你悄悄往后退的那一刻起
But the point is that what happens
会发生什么事呢
once you start kind of quietly leaning back?
正在经历这个过程的女士们
Everyone who’s been through this —
我要告诉你们 一旦你有了孩子
and I’m here to tell you, once you have a child at home,
你的工作一定要足够棒 你才会重返职场
your job better be really good to go back,
你很难把孩子留在家里
because it’s hard to leave that kid at home.
除非你的工作很有挑战性
Your job needs to be challenging.
很有价值
It needs to be rewarding.
除非你想有所作为
You need to feel like you’re making a difference.
如果2年前你没有得到晋升
And if two years ago you didn’t take a promotion
你的男同事得到了
and some guy next to you did,
如果3年前你不再争取机会了
if three years ago you stopped looking for new opportunities,
你的生活就变得很乏味了
you’re going to be bored
你本应该踩住油门坚持到底的
because you should have kept your foot on the gas pedal.
不到最后一刻别放弃
Don’t leave before you leave.
坚持住
Stay in.
紧踩油门
Keep your foot on the gas pedal,
如果真的到了你不得不为了孩子离开的那一天
until the very day you need to leave to take a break for a child —
那时候你再做决定
and then make your decisions.
不要提早开始
Don’t make decisions too far in advance,
特别是当你还没意识到自己做的是什么决定的时候
particularly ones you’re not even conscious you’re making.
遗憾的是 我们这一代
My generation really, sadly,
没能改变领导层女性的比例
is not going to change the numbers at the top.
这些数字无法上涨
They’re just not moving.
我们无法让占人口一半的女性群体
We are not going to get to where 50 percent of the population —
在任何一个领域的领导层中
in my generation, there will not be 50 percent of [women]
也占去50%的数量
at the top of any industry.
但我希望 未来有一代能做到
But I’m hopeful that future generations can.
如果一半的国家一半的公司是
I think a world where half of our countries and our companies
由女性在领导着的 这个世界会更美好
were run by women, would be a better world.
这不仅限于有人知道女洗手间在哪儿
It’s not just because people would know where the women’s bathrooms are,
尽管这也很重要
even though that would be very helpful.
我相信那会是个更好的世界
I think it would be a better world.
我有两个孩子
I have two children.
一个5岁的儿子和一个2岁的女儿
I have a five-year-old son and a two-year-old daughter.
我希望我的儿子能选择
I want my son to have a choice
是在工作中奋斗还是在家庭里付出
to contribute fully in the workforce or at home,
我希望我的女儿可以获得成功
and I want my daughter to have the choice to not just succeed,
也可以因为成功得到别人的尊重
but to be liked for her accomplishments.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

Facebook首席运营官Sheryl Sandberg给职场女性的三个建议。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

尤机灵

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18uDutylDa4

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