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为什么我们睡着时会幻想

Why We Hallucinate While Falling Asleep

科学秀
Sci-show
你有没有过这种情况 玩了很长时间的电子游戏 放下游戏手柄
Have you ever played a video game for so long that when you finally put down the controller,
入睡的时候 你的眼前会浮现出游戏画面
and or maybe fall in a sleep, you see images of the game flash before your eyes?
就我而言 这是经常发生的
This has happened to me a bunch of times personally.
有一次 我玩了很久的俄罗斯方块
One time, I had played so much tetris,
然后当我在学校写论文的时候
and I was writing a paper in college,
我惊奇的发现屏幕上的文字开始往下跌落
that I got surprised that the words on my screen were falling down.
我还在想“为什么它们不能好好停在这里呢?”
I was like:”Why are they all just staying there?”
我希望它们能像最开始一样
I was expecting them to like start
我真的是玩累啦
I was very tired.
这样的幻觉也适用于其他一些事情
These hallucinations can be other things too,
就像游戏拼图或者是摘苹果
like jigsaw puzzles or apple-picking.
它们会发生在鉴于清醒和沉睡的边缘状态下 这叫做临睡幻觉
And they happen in the weird limbo between wakefulness and sleep called hypnagogia.
事实上 这种状态下会发生很多奇怪的事情
In fact, lots of strange things can happen in this state,
就像是颤搐 或是一种叫做爆炸声感综合征的东西
like twitching or something called exploding head syndrome.
不要担心 大脑并没有参与这个过程 但是那仍会让你产生幻觉
Don’t worry. No brain bits are involved in that one but it can still get pretty trippy.
关于临睡幻觉科学家们还有很多不知道的情况 但是他们正在慢慢摸索
Scientists don’t know a ton about hypnagogia, but they are learning.
他们认为这是一种意识的转变状态 和服用LSO后的虚幻感相似
They consider it to be an altered state of consciousness, not unlike an LSD trip.
临睡幻觉状态仅仅会持续10分钟
The hypnagogic state only lasts about 10 minutes,
从你醒着到睡熟
as you transition from being awake to being asleep,
它被称为睡眠的第一阶段
although sometimes it’s called the first stage of sleep.
在这个昏昏欲睡的阶段 你就会产生幻觉
And during this period of drowsy pre-slumber, you can hallucinate.
你可能会感觉自己在下落 在飞或飘
You might feel like you’re falling, flying or floating.
你可能听到些只言片语或某种声音
You might hear short phrases or sounds
或看到任何东西 从无形状幻化成某种颜色再变成清晰人影
or see anything from amorphous shapes and colors to clear images of people.
这看起来有点像是在做梦 但其实还是有些区别的
Now this might seem like dreaming but it’s a little different.
大多数梦发生在眼球快速转动或REM睡眠期间
Most dreams happen during rapid eye movement, or REM sleep,
你的大脑比你睡觉时活跃得多
where your brain is much more active than during the rest of your shuteye.
梦通常是非常生动的
And dreams are usually pretty vivid.
你会成为各种梦境故事的一部分
You’re part of some kind of action or story,
比如乘着热气球到外太空
like going to outer space in a hot air balloon
和一个像帕特里克·斯图尔特爵士那样的小丑见面
to meet a clown that sounds like Sir Patrick Stewart.
但半睡半醒状态是更像是 在实验性艺术画廊观看电影片段
But hypnagogic states are more like watching snippets of films in an experimental art gallery.
萨尔瓦多·达利甚至通过干扰小睡时的入梦表象
Salvador Dali even famously used hypnagogic imagery to inform his art,
获得艺术灵感
disrupting his naps to get inspiration.
事情并不总是这样
It’s not always the case,
但图像可能来自于你在醒着时做的一些普通的或重复的事情
but the imagery can come from something mundane or repetitive you were doing while you were awake,
比如玩俄罗斯方块
like playing tetris.
这就是为什么这种幻觉现象有时被称为“俄罗斯方块效应”
That’s why this hallucination phenomenon is sometimes called the tetris effect.
科学家不知道为什么会出现这些幻觉
Scientists don’t know why these hallucinations happen,
因为并不是每个人都会出现 他们可能是嗜睡症之类的失调症状
because not everyone gets them and they can be a symptom of disorders like narcolepsy,
即极度嗜睡
which is basically extreme sleepiness.
一种观点是你大脑的一些部分比其他部分
But one idea is that some parts of your brain take longer than others
进入睡眠状态需要的时间更长
to fall into sleep mode.
当你迷迷糊糊睡去的时候
As you’re drifting off,
你大脑的电脉冲和脑电波开始减慢
your brain’s electrical pulses, or brainwaves, start to slow down
它们从适度的快速α波
They shift from moderately fast alpha waves,
即放松却清醒的状态
which are typical of being relaxed but awake,
到早期睡眠的较慢θ波
to slower theta waves of early sleep,
再到深度睡眠更缓慢的δ波
to even slower delta waves of deep sleep.
但是这种减缓的速度是不平稳的
But the slowing down isn’t even.
脑波的脑电测量显示
EEG measurements of brainwaves suggest that
大脑在前脑部位比后脑部分停下来的速度更快
your brain puts on the brakes faster in the front than in the back.
这就意味着控制视力或平衡的一部分大脑活跃时间较长
And that means that the parts of the brain in charge of vision or balance could be active for a bit longer,
这也就可以解释为什么这么多的幻觉都是可视化的
which might explain why so many hynagogic hallucinnations are visual,
或是有下跌这样的怪异感觉
or include weird sensations like falling.
因为在中间状态你的额叶在打盹
And because your frontal cortex is snoozing during this in-between state,
它并不能帮你弄清楚这期间发生的事情
it can’t help you sort out what‘s going on like it normally does.
在这个昏昏欲睡的过程中会发生的最可怕的事情之一就是
One of the most frightening things that can happen during this drowsy lull
听到巨大的爆鸣声 比如铙钹击打声或枪声
is hearing a loud, exploding sound like a cymbal crash or gunshot.
有时还会有闪光
Sometimes there’s also a flash of light.
这就被叫做爆炸声感综合征
This is called Exploding Head Syndrome.
虽然这不会伤人 但是同样是很可怕的 它会将人们从半睡半醒的状态惊醒
And well, it doesn’t hurt, it can be so scary that it wakes people up from their half-asleep state.
它是不是临睡幻觉的一种形式
It’s not clear whether this is just a specific type of hynagogic hallucination
或者是其他什么东西还无处得知
or whether it’s something else.
一些神经系统科学家认为这是一种睡眠障碍并推测这可能是大脑中的某种疾病发作的预示
Some neuroscientists consider it a sleep disorder and speculate it might be from tiny seizures,
或是脑电活动的猝发
or sudden bursts of electrical activity in the brain.
幸运的是 大多数有这种经历的人都不会为它感到困扰
Fortunately, most people who have this problem aren’t as bothered by it
只要他们明白这并不是患重病的迹象 就像脑肿瘤
once they find out that it’s not a sign of something more serious, like brain cancer.
临睡幻觉中会发生的另一种情况就是入睡抽动或睡惊
Another thing that can happen during hynagogia is the hypnic jerk or sleep start.
不去管名字 这并不是时尚新舞蹈的潮流而是一种无意识的抽搐
Despite the name, it’s not a hip new dance trend, it’s an involuntary twitch.
这些抽搐主要是肌肉收缩 有点像是打嗝
These jerks are basically just like bustle contractions, kind of like a hiccup.
而且大部分情况下还是挺正常的
And they are perfectly normal most of the time.
神经系统科学家还没弄清造成这种现象的原因
Neuroscientists don’t really know what causes them,
但它们在你的身体转成入睡状态的时候会发生
but they could happen because the way your body switches over to being asleep.
当你醒着时 你会从被称为网状激动系统的
When you are awake, you are getting lots of signals from a part of your brain stem
部分脑干中获得许多信号
known as the reticular activating system.
但到了入睡时间 大脑中部的一群细胞
But come bed time, a cluster of cells deep in the middle of the brain
开始阻挡这些信号并帮助你入睡
start to block these signals and bring on sleep.
虽然这种设置有助于更好的转入梦境 但也不是完全没有瑕疵的
While this setup makes for a pretty good transition to dreamland, it’s not entirely seamless.
因此入睡抽动会在这个过程中发生故障
So hypnic jerks could be glitches that arise during this process.
抽搐可能和入睡前幻觉的某方面有关并且会让你清醒过来
The twitches might be related to some aspect of your hypnagogic hallucinations and they could wake you up.
但是大多数时候 你都不会注意到
But most of the time, you don’t notice a thing.
这种半梦半醒的睡眠状态相当诡异
So, while this not-quite-awake, not-quite-asleep state can be pretty freaky,
通常会与你擦身而过
usually it just passes you by,
这样也许还好 因为每一晚你都会经历这种状态
which is probably good, because you have to go through it every single night
也并不是每个人都想成为达利这样的超现实主义者
and not everyone wants to be as surrealist as Dali.
感谢你收看这一期的科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of Sci-show.
如果想要了解更多有关大脑的诡异知识
If you wanna learn more about weird brain things,
在youtube.com/scishowpsych频道上
we have a whole channel called Sci-show psychology
我们有科学秀心理学这个频道专门讲述
over at youtube.com/scishowpsych.
想要了解所有类别的科学知识 也可以持续关注这个频道
And for more of all kinds of science, you can keeping watching right here,
或者去youtube.com/scishow频道上观看并订阅我们的频道
or go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

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译制信息
视频概述

当你睡着过后你的大脑在干嘛呢?

听录译者

丽丽贝卡

翻译译者

Crayon

审核员

YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RvBvYrklXM

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